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Quotes and Agendas: Israelis vs. Palestinians on Media, Public and Policy Agendas
Unformatted Document Text:  Fan-Page 6 The assessments of RQ1-3 concentrate on agenda issues that are of particular concern to Palestinians and Israelis as they try to improve their support in the United States. Let us now look at the setting of these agendas: Media agenda. The media agenda measurements of RQ1 focus on quotes of Israelis and Palestinians in the American press. Therefore, they include direct measurements of type 2 interactions in which members of the Palestinian and Israeli publics speak to the United States. They also incorporate type 3 effects of government officials in their communications through the American media. In addition, as mentioned above, the U.S. media might also have been influenced by the external event of the non-Palestinian attack of September 11. Coverage might have changed because the terrorists’ leader, Osama bin Laden, provided a video statement broadcast by the U.S. media articulating the aim of “peace in Palestine,” presumably on terms favorable to the Palestinians. Thus American coverage of the attacks did include a Palestinian component. To that extent, the terrorists already achieved one of their major goals, namely the communication of their ideas to various publics, including the American public (on the importance of mass media in the strategy of modern terrorism, see Hoffman, 1998; Tzfati & Weimann, 2002; Weimann & Winn, 1994). However, that success would have been mitigated if the press gave an even larger platform to the Israelis. In comparing quotes of Israelis and Palestinians in 108 American newspapers, newswires and electronic broadcast transcripts, Kemming et al. (2002) found that Palestinians were quoted both more often and more often first in American news stories in the four weeks following September 11 compared to the four weeks before that date. Therefore, there was an increase in the penetration of Palestinian interests and arguments into the United States press. However, as remarked above, the Israeli/Palestinians conflict has survived other momentous events including wars so the September 11 effects on American press coverage might also have had just a transient effect. In other words: RQ4: How did the September 11 attacks affect the long-range time trend of American quotes of Israelis and Palestinians? Public agenda. The public agenda data in this paper concern sympathy and are entirely affective in nature. The media measurements, on the other hand, can include affective quotes but quotes of policy positions might be even more likely. These cognitive quotes may or may not have an effect on sympathy. Furthermore, their effects might depend on the contexts in which they are framed by the press. Therefore, a component of the quotes of the two sides may be relevant to sympathy but the extent of the relevance is unknown. As a result, the media agenda as quantified by quotes may or may not be a good predictor of sympathy. Nevertheless, there may be enough overlap to make it worthwhile asking: RQ5: How does being quoted relate to sympathy for the two sides?

Authors: Fan, David. and Weimann, Gabriel.
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Fan-Page 6
The assessments of RQ1-3 concentrate on agenda issues that are of particular concern to
Palestinians and Israelis as they try to improve their support in the United States. Let us now
look at the setting of these agendas:
Media agenda. The media agenda measurements of RQ1 focus on quotes of Israelis and
Palestinians in the American press. Therefore, they include direct measurements of type 2
interactions in which members of the Palestinian and Israeli publics speak to the United States.
They also incorporate type 3 effects of government officials in their communications through the
American media.
In addition, as mentioned above, the U.S. media might also have been influenced by the
external event of the non-Palestinian attack of September 11. Coverage might have changed
because the terrorists’ leader, Osama bin Laden, provided a video statement broadcast by the
U.S. media articulating the aim of “peace in Palestine,” presumably on terms favorable to the
Palestinians. Thus American coverage of the attacks did include a Palestinian component.

To that extent, the terrorists already achieved one of their major goals, namely the
communication of their ideas to various publics, including the American public (on the
importance of mass media in the strategy of modern terrorism, see Hoffman, 1998; Tzfati &
Weimann, 2002; Weimann & Winn, 1994). However, that success would have been mitigated if
the press gave an even larger platform to the Israelis.

In comparing quotes of Israelis and Palestinians in 108 American newspapers, newswires and
electronic broadcast transcripts, Kemming et al. (2002) found that Palestinians were quoted both
more often and more often first in American news stories in the four weeks following September
11 compared to the four weeks before that date. Therefore, there was an increase in the
penetration of Palestinian interests and arguments into the United States press. However, as
remarked above, the Israeli/Palestinians conflict has survived other momentous events including
wars so the September 11 effects on American press coverage might also have had just a
transient effect. In other words:
RQ4: How did the September 11 attacks affect the long-range time trend of American
quotes of Israelis and Palestinians?
Public agenda. The public agenda data in this paper concern sympathy and are entirely
affective in nature. The media measurements, on the other hand, can include affective quotes but
quotes of policy positions might be even more likely. These cognitive quotes may or may not
have an effect on sympathy. Furthermore, their effects might depend on the contexts in which
they are framed by the press. Therefore, a component of the quotes of the two sides may be
relevant to sympathy but the extent of the relevance is unknown. As a result, the media agenda
as quantified by quotes may or may not be a good predictor of sympathy. Nevertheless, there
may be enough overlap to make it worthwhile asking:
RQ5: How does being quoted relate to sympathy for the two sides?


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