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Click here, kids! Advertising practices on popular children's Web sites
Unformatted Document Text:  Advertising on Children’s Web Sites 12 144 were included in the final sample. The rest of the sites were excluded because of the following reasons: (a) they were not primarily directed to children 12 or under 2 ; (b) the URLs were no longer accessible; and (c) sites were duplicated (FTC, 2002a). Nineteen Web sites from this sample were not accessible during current data collection period. So only 125 were included in the current sample. In order to get an update to the FTC’s sample, the authors obtained a list of popular Web sites for children from Nielsen//NetRatings in February 2002. This list contained 139 Web sites which were most often visited by children age 2 to 11-year-olds in December 2001. By using the same criteria as the FTC did in their study, the authors identified 28 news Web sites which fit both criteria and were not included in the FTC’s sample. Further examination of these Web sites revealed that only eight of them were designed for children under 13 as their primary audience. As a result, a total of 133 Web sites were included in the final sample. Data collection The coding took place during the first three weeks of July 2002. The authors coded a broad range of advertisements on the Web: banner ads 3 , pop-up ads, and interstitials 4 . Due to the complexity of some Web sites, it was impractical to code every single ad that ever appeared on a Web site. Moreover, the authors also noticed that sometimes different ads rotated on the same ad location each time a page reloaded. In order to 2 The FTC considers the following factors: the subject matter, visual or audio content, the age of models on the site; language; whether the advertising on the Web site is directed to children; information regarding the age of the actual or intended audience; and whether a site uses animated characters or other child-oriented features (FTC, 1999). 3 In this study, any ad that is part of the original Web page was considered as banner ad. It could appear anywhere on a page: top, middle, bottom, right, and left. 4 Interstitials refer to ads that appear between two pages (IAB, 2002).

Authors: Cai, Xiaomei. and Markiewicz, Kristin.
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Advertising on Children’s Web Sites 12
144 were included in the final sample. The rest of the sites were excluded because of the
following reasons: (a) they were not primarily directed to children 12 or under
2
; (b) the
URLs were no longer accessible; and (c) sites were duplicated (FTC, 2002a). Nineteen
Web sites from this sample were not accessible during current data collection period. So
only 125 were included in the current sample.
In order to get an update to the FTC’s sample, the authors obtained a list of
popular Web sites for children from Nielsen//NetRatings in February 2002. This list
contained 139 Web sites which were most often visited by children age 2 to 11-year-olds
in December 2001. By using the same criteria as the FTC did in their study, the authors
identified 28 news Web sites which fit both criteria and were not included in the FTC’s
sample. Further examination of these Web sites revealed that only eight of them were
designed for children under 13 as their primary audience. As a result, a total of 133 Web
sites were included in the final sample.
Data collection
The coding took place during the first three weeks of July 2002. The authors
coded a broad range of advertisements on the Web: banner ads
3
, pop-up ads, and
interstitials
4
.
Due to the complexity of some Web sites, it was impractical to code every single
ad that ever appeared on a Web site. Moreover, the authors also noticed that sometimes
different ads rotated on the same ad location each time a page reloaded. In order to
2
The FTC considers the following factors: the subject matter, visual or audio content, the age of models on
the site; language; whether the advertising on the Web site is directed to children; information regarding the
age of the actual or intended audience; and whether a site uses animated characters or other child-oriented
features (FTC, 1999).
3
In this study, any ad that is part of the original Web page was considered as banner ad. It could appear
anywhere on a page: top, middle, bottom, right, and left.
4
Interstitials refer to ads that appear between two pages (IAB, 2002).


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