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Host Communication Competence and Psychological Health: A Study of Cross-cultural Adaptation of Korean Expatriate Employees in the United States*
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural Adaptation 18 of “satisfaction” and “alienation.” Given that the single index is not sufficient to examine closely the phenomena of psychological health, these multiple indices have given more highly reliable and valid measurement of the phenomena. Satisfaction was measured by seven items. The first four items are adapted from Gao and Gudykunst's (1990) measure of intercultural adaptation in their study of international students in the U.S. The last three items are adapted from Maruyama’s (1998) research questionnaire. These seven items for assessing psychological health pertain to feelings of comfort and satisfaction in the host environment. A 7-point Likert type scale is used (1 = not at all; 7 = completely): 1) "In general, how satisfied with your present life in the United States are you?"; 2) “In general, how comfortable do you feel living in the United States?”; 3) ”How rewarding is your life in the United States?”; 4) ”How stressful has your life in the United States been?”; 5) “How satisfied are you with the attitudes of American people toward you?"; 6) “How satisfied are you with your relationships with American people?”; 7) “How satisfied are you with your experiences in American culture?” The fourth item was dropped to improve the reliability. The combination of the remaining six scale items as a satisfaction scale yielded a Cronbach’s alpha = .87. Alienation is assessed by eight items and a 7-point Likert type scale is used (1 = totally disagree; 7 = totally agree). In contrast to the “satisfaction” scale, the scale items were worded negatively. Eight items from the 10-item measure of alienation Y. Y. Kim (1980) utilized in her study of Indochinese refugees were slightly modified: 1) “I feel awkward and out of place living in the United States”; 2) “It is difficult for me to understand the American way of life”; 3) “I feel lonely”; 4) “I feel that American people do not like me”; 5) “I am frustrated trying to live in the United States”; 6) “I dislike staying in the United States”; 7) “I miss my home”; 8) “I want to go back to my country as soon as possible.” The eight items were combined as an alienation scale, yielding Cronbach’s alpha = .91. In the analysis, the satisfaction scale for psychological health was used as the dependent variable. Results For independent variables, the sample had a mean of 4.89 (SD = .94) on the host language

Authors: Kim, II, Yang-Soo.
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Cross-cultural Adaptation 18
of “satisfaction” and “alienation.” Given that the single index is not sufficient to examine closely the
phenomena of psychological health, these multiple indices have given more highly reliable and valid
measurement of the phenomena. Satisfaction was measured by seven items. The first four items are
adapted from Gao and Gudykunst's (1990) measure of intercultural adaptation in their study of
international students in the U.S. The last three items are adapted from Maruyama’s (1998) research
questionnaire. These seven items for assessing psychological health pertain to feelings of comfort and
satisfaction in the host environment. A 7-point Likert type scale is used (1 = not at all; 7 = completely):
1) "In general, how satisfied with your present life in the United States are you?"; 2) “In general, how
comfortable do you feel living in the United States?”; 3) ”How rewarding is your life in the United
States?”; 4) ”How stressful has your life in the United States been?”; 5) “How satisfied are you with the
attitudes of American people toward you?"; 6) “How satisfied are you with your relationships with
American people?”; 7) “How satisfied are you with your experiences in American culture?” The fourth
item was dropped to improve the reliability. The combination of the remaining six scale items as a
satisfaction scale yielded a Cronbach’s alpha = .87.
Alienation is assessed by eight items and a 7-point Likert type scale is used (1 = totally disagree;
7 = totally agree). In contrast to the “satisfaction” scale, the scale items were worded negatively. Eight
items from the 10-item measure of alienation Y. Y. Kim (1980) utilized in her study of Indochinese
refugees were slightly modified: 1) “I feel awkward and out of place living in the United States”; 2) “It is
difficult for me to understand the American way of life”; 3) “I feel lonely”; 4) “I feel that American
people do not like me”; 5) “I am frustrated trying to live in the United States”; 6) “I dislike staying in the
United States”; 7) “I miss my home”; 8) “I want to go back to my country as soon as possible.” The eight
items were combined as an alienation scale, yielding Cronbach’s alpha = .91. In the analysis, the
satisfaction scale for psychological health was used as the dependent variable.
Results
For independent variables, the sample had a mean of 4.89 (SD = .94) on the host language


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