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Host Communication Competence and Psychological Health: A Study of Cross-cultural Adaptation of Korean Expatriate Employees in the United States*
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural Adaptation 8 international career satisfaction and company identification. Dunbar (1994) refers to the differences in doing in business in what might be deemed a ‘culturally easy’ environment (i.e., Germans in the United States) compared with operating in a culturally more challenging one (i.e., Americans in Japan) (p. 287). This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that cultures of some host countries are more difficult to adapt to than others (Mendenhall & Oddou, 1985; Torbiorn, 1982). Job factors have also been found to be significantly related to expatriate work adjustment. In a study by Black and Gregersen (1991), role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict were significant predictors of work adjustment. Finally, organizational factors (practices) which include compensation and benefits, length of overseas assignments, promotion and career development policies, contact with the home office, assignment of mentors back home (Black et al., 1991; Gomez-Meija & Balkin, 1987; Tung, 1982) were significant factor on expatriate adjustment. Similarly, organizational support predicts expatriate adjustment (Caliguiri et al., 1999; Shaffer et al., 1999). Researchers have also studied the role of cross-cultural training in the process of expatriate adjustment. Although studies support the use of pre-departure cross-cultural training (Black & Mendenhall, 1990), evidence of its effectiveness remains inconclusive (Selmer, Torbiorn, & Leon, 1998). The findings suggest that organizations could have a positive impact on assignment completion and expatriate adjustment by assessing their organizations’ positions and policies related to these variables. As multidimensional phenomena, the studies of expatriate adjustment have identified several facets of domains of expatriate adjustment in conceptual models: anticipatory, in-country adjustment, psychological, general, and work adjustment. In addition, studies have examined several determinants of expatriate adjustment. In spite of its face validity of the study on conceptual models of expatriate adjustment, the shortcoming of these studies lack empirical content. Thus, it would be premature to use the outcome of these studies as practical indicators for management of human resources in multinational organization such as the selecting, training or mentoring of expatriates without direct empirical confirmation of their validity. Many empirical studies have examined the several predictors which would

Authors: Kim, II, Yang-Soo.
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Cross-cultural Adaptation 8
international career satisfaction and company identification. Dunbar (1994) refers to the differences in
doing in business in what might be deemed a ‘culturally easy’ environment (i.e., Germans in the United
States) compared with operating in a culturally more challenging one (i.e., Americans in Japan) (p. 287).
This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that cultures of some host countries are more difficult
to adapt to than others (Mendenhall & Oddou, 1985; Torbiorn, 1982).
Job factors have also been found to be significantly related to expatriate work adjustment. In a
study by Black and Gregersen (1991), role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict were significant
predictors of work adjustment. Finally, organizational factors (practices) which include compensation
and benefits, length of overseas assignments, promotion and career development policies, contact with
the home office, assignment of mentors back home (Black et al., 1991; Gomez-Meija & Balkin, 1987;
Tung, 1982) were significant factor on expatriate adjustment. Similarly, organizational support predicts
expatriate adjustment (Caliguiri et al., 1999; Shaffer et al., 1999). Researchers have also studied the role
of cross-cultural training in the process of expatriate adjustment. Although studies support the use of
pre-departure cross-cultural training (Black & Mendenhall, 1990), evidence of its effectiveness remains
inconclusive (Selmer, Torbiorn, & Leon, 1998). The findings suggest that organizations could have a
positive impact on assignment completion and expatriate adjustment by assessing their organizations’
positions and policies related to these variables.
As multidimensional phenomena, the studies of expatriate adjustment have identified several
facets of domains of expatriate adjustment in conceptual models: anticipatory, in-country adjustment,
psychological, general, and work adjustment. In addition, studies have examined several determinants of
expatriate adjustment. In spite of its face validity of the study on conceptual models of expatriate
adjustment, the shortcoming of these studies lack empirical content. Thus, it would be premature to use
the outcome of these studies as practical indicators for management of human resources in multinational
organization such as the selecting, training or mentoring of expatriates without direct empirical
confirmation of their validity. Many empirical studies have examined the several predictors which would


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