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A Communicative Approach to Road Rage: Accounts of Driving and Retaliation
Unformatted Document Text:  Road Rage 12 behaviors and reactions included behaviors such as tailgating, cutting off, and driving slowly. These behaviors were used to create a more specific typology of behaviors, discussed later. Specific behaviors, emotions and attributions were noted and sorted into categories based on the relevant behaviors, emotions, and attributions. A second 25% of the data was used to refine the specific typologies under each broad category, using the same procedure mentioned above. Other minor changes to the scheme were also made, such as including a broader range of emotions. A third 25% of the data was used to check this latest iteration and add other behaviors or emotions beneath each category. In reviewing the third 25% of the data, only minor changes were made to the coding scheme. Thus, after reviewing 75% of the data to create the coding categories, the researchers were confident that the created categories would be inclusive of the data. The final 25% of the data were used to test for reliability among the three coders of the data. Reliability analysis for all categories for all three coders revealed intercoder agreement at 86%, with a Cohen’s kappa of .72. Finally, the first 75% of the data were recoded. Then all the data were analyzed. Initiating Behaviors and Reactions Both initiating and reacting behaviors were coded in identical ways, due to the fact that much of the behavioral content overlapped. Specifically, many of the behaviors that were enacted in the initiating incident were the same used in reaction to those incidents. Intercoder agreement among the three coders for the initiating behaviors was 96%, with a kappa of .93. For the reactions, intercoder agreement was 79% with a kappa of .69. Initiating and reaction behaviors were assigned to one of six categories. The first category was Vehicular Communication. Because of the vast amount of behaviors where participants literally used the car to make their points, this category was delineated out into four sub-categories. The first sub-category was Passive, which included behaviors such as slow driving, slowing down, and touching or tapping the brakes. The second sub-category was Competitive, which included behaviors such as cutting the other driver off, speeding around or speeding to pass, racing, or boxing in another driver. Third, Intimidating behaviors included tailgating, flashing lights/brights, honking the horn, following the other car for an extended time, pulling up beside someone, and revving the engine. Fourth, Intentionally Harmful behaviors included slamming/hitting the brakes, attempting to run the other car off the road, and trying to

Authors: Canary, Daniel., Mikkelson, Alan., Switzer, Frank. and Bailey, Carrie.
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Road Rage 12
behaviors and reactions included behaviors such as tailgating, cutting off, and driving slowly. These
behaviors were used to create a more specific typology of behaviors, discussed later. Specific behaviors,
emotions and attributions were noted and sorted into categories based on the relevant behaviors, emotions,
and attributions. A second 25% of the data was used to refine the specific typologies under each broad
category, using the same procedure mentioned above. Other minor changes to the scheme were also made,
such as including a broader range of emotions. A third 25% of the data was used to check this latest
iteration and add other behaviors or emotions beneath each category. In reviewing the third 25% of the data,
only minor changes were made to the coding scheme. Thus, after reviewing 75% of the data to create the
coding categories, the researchers were confident that the created categories would be inclusive of the data.
The final 25% of the data were used to test for reliability among the three coders of the data. Reliability
analysis for all categories for all three coders revealed intercoder agreement at 86%, with a Cohen’s kappa of
.72. Finally, the first 75% of the data were recoded. Then all the data were analyzed.
Initiating Behaviors and Reactions
Both initiating and reacting behaviors were coded in identical ways, due to the fact that much of the
behavioral content overlapped. Specifically, many of the behaviors that were enacted in the initiating
incident were the same used in reaction to those incidents. Intercoder agreement among the three coders for
the initiating behaviors was 96%, with a kappa of .93. For the reactions, intercoder agreement was 79%
with a kappa of .69. Initiating and reaction behaviors were assigned to one of six categories. The first
category was Vehicular Communication. Because of the vast amount of behaviors where participants
literally used the car to make their points, this category was delineated out into four sub-categories. The first
sub-category was Passive, which included behaviors such as slow driving, slowing down, and touching or
tapping the brakes. The second sub-category was Competitive, which included behaviors such as cutting the
other driver off, speeding around or speeding to pass, racing, or boxing in another driver. Third,
Intimidating behaviors included tailgating, flashing lights/brights, honking the horn, following the other car
for an extended time, pulling up beside someone, and revving the engine. Fourth, Intentionally Harmful
behaviors included slamming/hitting the brakes, attempting to run the other car off the road, and trying to


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