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Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11 10 and (4) suggesting remedies. He asserts that frames are only partially defined by the salience of certain information in the text, while the omission of information is equally important, yet often ignored. Gamson and Modigliani (1989) argue that media discourse consists of sets of frames that cluster in interpretive packages. Although packages allow for a certain degree of disagreement among frames used to construct them, the overall message of a package is unambiguous and clear. Three broad ideas may determine the influence of packages: cultural resonances (packages that resonate with larger cultural themes are more powerful,) sponsor activities (certain agents promote their agenda through public relations,) and media practices (journalists tend to place trust in official sources.) The authors, referring to the previous work of Gamson and Lasch, distinguish the following five framing devices: (1) metaphors, (2) exemplars (such as historic examples,) (3) catchphrases, (4) depictions, and (5) visual images. In an attempt to define framing more precisely, Scheufele (1999) proposes a typology which takes into account two dimensions: (1) media versus individual frames and (2) independent versus dependent frames. Closest to the critical/cultural studies perspective of this research is Scheufele’s notion of media frames as dependent variables, which focuses on “extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the production and selection of news” (p.109), such as ideology, social norms and values, and professional routines of journalists. Reese (2000) views framing as a possible solution for the methodological problems of cultural studies. He defines frames as “organizing principles that are socially shared and persistent over time, that work symbolically to meaningfully structure the social world” (p.11).

Authors: Obad, Orlanda.
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Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani
President Musharraf After 9/11
10
and (4) suggesting remedies. He asserts that frames are only partially defined by the
salience of certain information in the text, while the omission of information is equally
important, yet often ignored.
Gamson and Modigliani (1989) argue that media discourse consists of sets of
frames that cluster in interpretive packages. Although packages allow for a certain degree
of disagreement among frames used to construct them, the overall message of a package
is unambiguous and clear. Three broad ideas may determine the influence of packages:
cultural resonances (packages that resonate with larger cultural themes are more
powerful,) sponsor activities (certain agents promote their agenda through public
relations,) and media practices (journalists tend to place trust in official sources.) The
authors, referring to the previous work of Gamson and Lasch, distinguish the following
five framing devices: (1) metaphors, (2) exemplars (such as historic examples,) (3)
catchphrases, (4) depictions, and (5) visual images.
In an attempt to define framing more precisely, Scheufele (1999) proposes a
typology which takes into account two dimensions: (1) media versus individual frames
and (2) independent versus dependent frames. Closest to the critical/cultural studies
perspective of this research is Scheufele’s notion of media frames as dependent variables,
which focuses on “extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the production and selection
of news” (p.109), such as ideology, social norms and values, and professional routines of
journalists.
Reese (2000) views framing as a possible solution for the methodological
problems of cultural studies. He defines frames as “organizing principles that are socially
shared and persistent over time, that work symbolically to meaningfully structure the
social world” (p.11).


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