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Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11 31 Endnotes: 1 This document also reports that Musharraf banned “honor” killings, presented a reform program to fight corruption and a human rights agenda that focused on the protection of women, children and minorities. On the other hand, his military government banned political activities in public and “dozens of political activists were arrested for breaches of the ban.” Some members of the previous government, such as the former minister for information, continued to be detained without charge or trial; dozens of activists and others were detained without charge or trial, and many such detainees were tortured; torture in police custody and jails led to at least 25 deaths; abuses of children in custody continued. 2 Freedom House is a non-partisan organization concerned with the protection of human rights and democracy around the world. Since 1972 Freedom House has published annual assessments of the state of freedom by assigning each country or territory the status of “free,” “partly free” or “not free,” based upon sources such as news reports, think tanks, academic analysis and NGO publications. 3 According to Freedom House reports, over the next 30 months Sharif repealed the president’s constitutional power to dismiss governments, forced the resignations of the chief justice of the Supreme Court and of an army chief, and cracked down on the press and nongovernmental organizations. See: http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2001/countryratings/pakistan.htm 4 see: http://www.paknews.com; http://www.pak.gov.pk 5 Common sense is defined as the process in which “elite discourses become disconnected from their social and historical origins,” so that the society “collectively ‘forgets’ that the meanings promoted by these discourses are socially constructed” (Tucker, 1998, p. 144.) 6 One of the examples that Parenti uses is the portrayal of Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi in The New York Times as an “independent and popular national leader” who supports a moderate, democratic course, “a man of royal bearing” and “a leader with whom both president F.W. deKlerk and Nelson Mandela must reckon” (p.178.) Parenti argues that in reality Buthelezi persecuted the supporters of the oppositional ANC, tolerated no opposition parties or dissent, and secretly collaborated with the apartheid regime and the military. Similar is the example of the former dictator of the Philippines, president Ferdinand Marcos, who has been portrayed in the press “as America’s staunch ally and defender of democracy.” Shortly after Marcos fell out of favor of the US foreign policy, the US media started publishing discrediting stories about his past, pointing out his economic monopoly, and he was finally framed as a tyrant. 7 According to the International Federation of the Periodical Press report for 2001/2002, Time is sixth, Newsweek is eleventh, and U.S. News & World Report is fourteenth on the list of top 50 general interest magazines in the world, which makes them the three best-selling U.S. newsmagazines.

Authors: Obad, Orlanda.
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Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani
President Musharraf After 9/11
31
Endnotes:
1
This document also reports that Musharraf banned “honor” killings, presented a reform program to fight
corruption and a human rights agenda that focused on the protection of women, children and minorities. On
the other hand, his military government banned political activities in public and “dozens of political
activists were arrested for breaches of the ban.” Some members of the previous government, such as the
former minister for information, continued to be detained without charge or trial; dozens of activists and
others were detained without charge or trial, and many such detainees were tortured; torture in police
custody and jails led to at least 25 deaths; abuses of children in custody continued.
2
Freedom House is a non-partisan organization concerned with the protection of human rights and
democracy around the world. Since 1972 Freedom House has published annual assessments of the state of
freedom by assigning each country or territory the status of “free,” “partly free” or “not free,” based upon
sources such as news reports, think tanks, academic analysis and NGO publications.
3
According to Freedom House reports, over the next 30 months Sharif repealed the president’s
constitutional power to dismiss governments, forced the resignations of the chief justice of the Supreme
Court and of an army chief, and cracked down on the press and nongovernmental organizations. See:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2001/countryratings/pakistan.htm
4
see: http://www.paknews.com; http://www.pak.gov.pk
5
Common sense is defined as the process in which “elite discourses become disconnected from their social
and historical origins,” so that the society “collectively ‘forgets’ that the meanings promoted by these
discourses are socially constructed” (Tucker, 1998, p. 144.)
6
One of the examples that Parenti uses is the portrayal of Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi in The New York
Times as an “independent and popular national leader” who supports a moderate, democratic course, “a
man of royal bearing” and “a leader with whom both president F.W. deKlerk and Nelson Mandela must
reckon” (p.178.) Parenti argues that in reality Buthelezi persecuted the supporters of the oppositional ANC,
tolerated no opposition parties or dissent, and secretly collaborated with the apartheid regime and the
military. Similar is the example of the former dictator of the Philippines, president Ferdinand Marcos, who
has been portrayed in the press “as America’s staunch ally and defender of democracy.” Shortly after
Marcos fell out of favor of the US foreign policy, the US media started publishing discrediting stories
about his past, pointing out his economic monopoly, and he was finally framed as a tyrant.
7
According to the International Federation of the Periodical Press report for 2001/2002, Time is sixth,
Newsweek is eleventh, and U.S. News & World Report is fourteenth on the list of top 50 general interest
magazines in the world, which makes them the three best-selling U.S. newsmagazines.


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