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Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani President Musharraf After 9/11 7 Chang, Shoemaker, and Bredlinger (1987) proposed seven criteria of deciding what is newsworthy in terms of international news: potential for social change, normative deviance (oddity or uniqueness of the event, which would break the norm if it had occurred in the U.S.,) relevance to the U.S., language affinity, geographical distance (closer countries are preferred in news coverage,) press freedom, and the economic system of the country being covered. Hester (1973) argued that the determinants involve hierarchy of nations (which includes geographic size, population, economic development, and its length of existence as a sovereign nation,) their cultural affinities (such as shared language, amounts of migration among countries or amount of intermarriage,) economic associations, and news and information conflicts. Gans (1979) detected eight clusters of enduring values in American news that influence the decision on what becomes news: ethnocentrism, altruistic democracy, responsible capitalism, small-town pastoralism, individualism, moderatism, social order, and national leadership. When discussing the influences on media content, Shoemaker and Reese (1991) suggest a model of concentric circles. According to that framework, personal attitudes and orientations of reporters are in the center of the scheme and surrounded by four other levels, or circles: the media routines level, the organization level, the extramedia level, and the ideological level. Following the tradition of critical theory, the authors stress the importance of media owners in the process of making decisions about the news content, and they view hegemonic values in news as tools of permeating the notion of “common sense” 5 in the society. Shoemaker and Reese state that sources can exert a subtle influence on news content by offering “the context within which all other information is evaluated, by providing usable information that is easier and cheaper to use than that from other sources” (p.150).

Authors: Obad, Orlanda.
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background image
Framing a Friendly Dictator: U.S. Newsmagazine Coverage of Pakistani
President Musharraf After 9/11
7
Chang, Shoemaker, and Bredlinger (1987) proposed seven criteria of deciding
what is newsworthy in terms of international news: potential for social change, normative
deviance (oddity or uniqueness of the event, which would break the norm if it had
occurred in the U.S.,) relevance to the U.S., language affinity, geographical distance
(closer countries are preferred in news coverage,) press freedom, and the economic
system of the country being covered. Hester (1973) argued that the determinants involve
hierarchy of nations (which includes geographic size, population, economic development,
and its length of existence as a sovereign nation,) their cultural affinities (such as shared
language, amounts of migration among countries or amount of intermarriage,) economic
associations, and news and information conflicts. Gans (1979) detected eight clusters of
enduring values in American news that influence the decision on what becomes news:
ethnocentrism, altruistic democracy, responsible capitalism, small-town pastoralism,
individualism, moderatism, social order, and national leadership.
When discussing the influences on media content, Shoemaker and Reese (1991)
suggest a model of concentric circles. According to that framework, personal attitudes
and orientations of reporters are in the center of the scheme and surrounded by four other
levels, or circles: the media routines level, the organization level, the extramedia level,
and the ideological level. Following the tradition of critical theory, the authors stress the
importance of media owners in the process of making decisions about the news content,
and they view hegemonic values in news as tools of permeating the notion of “common
sense”
5
in the society. Shoemaker and Reese state that sources can exert a subtle
influence on news content by offering “the context within which all other information is
evaluated, by providing usable information that is easier and cheaper to use than that
from other sources” (p.150).


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