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A Social Cognitive Explanation of Internet Uses and Gratifications: Toward a New Theory of Media Attendance
Unformatted Document Text:  penetration (54%, NTIA, 2002) we estimated that respondents at 504 (out of 938) of the valid addresses had access the Internet, and thus, could have completed the online survey. Therefore, we estimate that the 175 people who completed the survey represent an Internet user response rate of 35 percent. Of those, 42 percent were female and 55 percent were male (with 2 percent not indicating their gender) with an average age of 42 years old. Eighty-eight percent were Caucasian, five percent were African American, two percent were Latino and the remaining four percent were Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American or other. Forty-two percent of the sample indicated an average household income under $50,000; the remaining 58 percent indicated an average annual income greater than $50,000. Educationally, participants ranged between 9-22 years beyond kindergarten (M = 16, SD = 2.61). Operational Measures The usual procedure for analyzing gratifications in the Uses and gratifications tradition is to conduct an exploratory factor analysis of the gratification items. This procedure was not followed in the present research since a priori theoretical assumptions about the nature of the gratification variables were available, in the form of the incentive categories recognized in SCT. Instead, gratification items were collected from prior Uses and gratifications studies, rephrased as outcome expectations (i.e., “using the Internet how likely are you to...” on a scale of one to seven, where one was very unlikely and seven very likely). These statements of outcome expectations were classified into SCT incentive categories by consulting the conceptual definitions found in Bandura (1986, pp. 233ff) and supplemented with items reflecting status and monetary incentives that were

Authors: Eastin, Matthew. and Larose, Robert.
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penetration (54%, NTIA, 2002) we estimated that respondents at 504 (out of 938) of the
valid addresses had access the Internet, and thus, could have completed the online survey.
Therefore, we estimate that the 175 people who completed the survey represent an
Internet user response rate of 35 percent. Of those, 42 percent were female and 55
percent were male (with 2 percent not indicating their gender) with an average age of 42
years old. Eighty-eight percent were Caucasian, five percent were African American, two
percent were Latino and the remaining four percent were Asian, Pacific Islander, Native
American or other. Forty-two percent of the sample indicated an average household
income under $50,000; the remaining 58 percent indicated an average annual income
greater than $50,000. Educationally, participants ranged between 9-22 years beyond
kindergarten (M = 16, SD = 2.61).
Operational Measures
The usual procedure for analyzing gratifications in the Uses and gratifications
tradition is to conduct an exploratory factor analysis of the gratification items. This
procedure was not followed in the present research since a priori theoretical assumptions
about the nature of the gratification variables were available, in the form of the incentive
categories recognized in SCT. Instead, gratification items were collected from prior Uses
and gratifications studies, rephrased as outcome expectations (i.e., “using the Internet
how likely are you to...” on a scale of one to seven, where one was very unlikely and
seven very likely). These statements of outcome expectations were classified into SCT
incentive categories by consulting the conceptual definitions found in Bandura (1986, pp.
233ff) and supplemented with items reflecting status and monetary incentives that were


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