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A Social Cognitive Explanation of Internet Uses and Gratifications: Toward a New Theory of Media Attendance
Unformatted Document Text:  under represtented in Uses and gratifications research (cf. LaRose et al., 2001). Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach alphas) were computed for each. Six categories of expected outcomes, one representing each incentive category, were operationalized. The range, means, and standard deviations of these variables are found in Table 1. These included novel sensory outcomes 1 ( D = .74), activity outcomes 2 ( D = .73), social outcomes 3 ( D = .89), and self-evaluative outcomes 4 ( D = .77) that corresponded to Uses and gratifications dimensions common in mass communication research. Measures of status outcomes 5 ( D = .75) and monetary outcomes 6 ( D = .72) were also included. Previous research (LaRose et al., 2002) had left the distinction between habit strength and deficient self -regulation unresolved. Under –determination (i.e. too few items) of the habit strength variable was a possible confounding factor. Accordingly, new items were developed by drawing upon theoretical works describing habitual behavior (Aarts et al, 1998; Oulette & Wood, 1998; Bargh & Gollwitzer, 1994). The combined pool of habit strength and deficient self-regulation items was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation. Two interpretable factors emerged. On one, three of the habit strength items 7 had loadings of .6 or more and were combined into an additive index ( D = .76). On the other factor, items reflecting deficient self-regulation appeared, and nine 8 with factor loadings over .6 (and no secondary loadings over .4) were combined into a measure of deficient self-regulation ( D = .91). These factors seemed to reflect the distinction between the self-observation subfunction of self-regulation on the one hand and the judgmental process and self-reactive subfunctions on the other hand.

Authors: Eastin, Matthew. and Larose, Robert.
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under represtented in Uses and gratifications research (cf. LaRose et al., 2001). Internal
consistency coefficients (Cronbach alphas) were computed for each.
Six categories of expected outcomes, one representing each incentive category,
were operationalized. The range, means, and standard deviations of these variables are
found in Table 1. These included novel sensory outcomes
1
(
D
= .74), activity outcomes
2
(
D
= .73), social outcomes
3
(
D
= .89), and self-evaluative outcomes
4
(
D
= .77) that
corresponded to Uses and gratifications dimensions common in mass communication
research. Measures of status outcomes
5
(
D
= .75) and monetary outcomes
6
(
D
= .72) were
also included.
Previous research (LaRose et al., 2002) had left the distinction between habit
strength and deficient self -regulation unresolved. Under –determination (i.e. too few
items) of the habit strength variable was a possible confounding factor. Accordingly, new
items were developed by drawing upon theoretical works describing habitual behavior
(Aarts et al, 1998; Oulette & Wood, 1998; Bargh & Gollwitzer, 1994). The combined
pool of habit strength and deficient self-regulation items was subjected to an exploratory
factor analysis using varimax rotation. Two interpretable factors emerged. On one, three
of the habit strength items
7
had loadings of .6 or more and were combined into an
additive index (
D
= .76). On the other factor, items reflecting deficient self-regulation
appeared, and nine
8
with factor loadings over .6 (and no secondary loadings over .4) were
combined into a measure of deficient self-regulation (
D
= .91). These factors seemed to
reflect the distinction between the self-observation subfunction of self-regulation on the
one hand and the judgmental process and self-reactive subfunctions on the other hand.


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