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Relationship between Developmental Stages and Video Game Uses and Gratifications, Game Preference and Amount of Time spent in Play
Unformatted Document Text:  Video game U&G 4 The Uses and Gratifications Paradigm Uses and gratifications is one of the oldest continuous research programs in mass communications, having conceptual roots in the Payne Fund movie studies in the 1920s (Lowery & DeFleur, 1996) and a series of studies conducted at Lazarsfeld’s Bureau of Applied Social Research in the 1940s (Sills, 1996). In 1974, Rosengren presented a model of the uses and gratifications paradigm in which basic needs (1), individual differences (2), and contextual societal factors (3) combine to result in a variety of perceived problems and motivations (4-6) to which gratifications are sought from the media (7) and elsewhere (8) leading to differential patterns of media effects (9) on both the individual (10) and societal (11) levels. Later, Rosengren and Windahl (1989) integrated stages of cognitive and moral development with the media uses and gratifications model to create the uses and development model which explains how individual needs, interests, and requirements at different ages or stages in life may effect media use. The model of uses and development states that 1) certain developmental events and processes create 2) resources and needs that bring about 3) certain media use, which lead to 4) certain media effects and consequences (Rosengren & Windahl, 1989, see Figure 1). There is ample research evidence supporting Rosengren and Windahl’s (1989) assertion that individuals use different media at different developmental stages in their lives. Not only do people seek out specific types of media, but they also seek out specific genres within that medium. The first major study on the effects of television on children, Television in the Lives of our Children (Schramm, Lyle & Parker, 1961), showed age was an important predictor of television use. Among the findings and conclusions from 11 investigations carried out between 1958 and 1960 in ten communities in the United States and Canada differences in age groups were found in 1) the amount of time spent in front of the television and 2) and the type of content

Authors: Sherry, John., Desouza, Rebecca., Greenberg, Bradley. and Lachlan, Ken.
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Video game U&G
4
The Uses and Gratifications Paradigm
Uses and gratifications is one of the oldest continuous research programs in mass
communications, having conceptual roots in the Payne Fund movie studies in the 1920s (Lowery
& DeFleur, 1996) and a series of studies conducted at Lazarsfeld’s Bureau of Applied Social
Research in the 1940s (Sills, 1996). In 1974, Rosengren presented a model of the uses and
gratifications paradigm in which basic needs (1), individual differences (2), and contextual
societal factors (3) combine to result in a variety of perceived problems and motivations (4-6) to
which gratifications are sought from the media (7) and elsewhere (8) leading to differential
patterns of media effects (9) on both the individual (10) and societal (11) levels. Later,
Rosengren and Windahl (1989) integrated stages of cognitive and moral development with the
media uses and gratifications model to create the uses and development model which explains
how individual needs, interests, and requirements at different ages or stages in life may effect
media use. The model of uses and development states that 1) certain developmental events and
processes create 2) resources and needs that bring about 3) certain media use, which lead to 4)
certain media effects and consequences (Rosengren & Windahl, 1989, see Figure 1).
There is ample research evidence supporting Rosengren and Windahl’s (1989) assertion
that individuals use different media at different developmental stages in their lives. Not only do
people seek out specific types of media, but they also seek out specific genres within that
medium. The first major study on the effects of television on children, Television in the Lives of
our Children (Schramm, Lyle & Parker, 1961), showed age was an important predictor of
television use. Among the findings and conclusions from 11 investigations carried out between
1958 and 1960 in ten communities in the United States and Canada differences in age groups
were found in 1) the amount of time spent in front of the television and 2) and the type of content


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