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Relationship between Developmental Stages and Video Game Uses and Gratifications, Game Preference and Amount of Time spent in Play
Unformatted Document Text:  Video game U&G 8 Social development. According to Sullivan’s heuristic stages of development (Muss, 1988) preadolescence is a stage in which there is a powerful change in social orientation. The individual moves away from the need for a larger group of playmates and starts to experience the need for an intimate one-to-one relationship with a playmate of the same sex. The next stage known as the adolescent stage is typified by the individual’s declining dependence on family, the striving for independence and the increased importance of the peer group. According to McLeod and Brown (1976) development during the period of adolescence results in the following changes: 1) dependence on parental authority gives way to greater freedom and independence; 2) there is an increase in sociability with increasing interest in peer relationships; and 3) there is rapid change in the adolescent’s time budgeting, with more time spent outside the home. According to Rosengren & Windahl (1989) behavioral changes at the different stages of development are associated with different sets of needs and motives for media use. These changes in turn provide frames of reference and perceptions that undoubtedly influence the nature of media effects. Sullivan (Muss, 1988) states that late adolescence or young adulthood is the period when the individual must learn to institute effective security measures that help him cope with anxiety and reduce tension. A major obstacle to development might occur if the individual attempts to escape the anxiety of adult responsibility by avoiding reality-oriented behavior and engaging in daydreaming or fantasy. Thus based on the assumption that children at different stages of cognitive and social development use media differently we hypothesize that: H1: There will be differences between age groups in amount of time spent using video games H2: There will be differences between age groups in the type of video games preferred

Authors: Sherry, John., Desouza, Rebecca., Greenberg, Bradley. and Lachlan, Ken.
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Video game U&G
8
Social development. According to Sullivan’s heuristic stages of development (Muss,
1988) preadolescence is a stage in which there is a powerful change in social orientation. The
individual moves away from the need for a larger group of playmates and starts to experience the
need for an intimate one-to-one relationship with a playmate of the same sex. The next stage
known as the adolescent stage is typified by the individual’s declining dependence on family, the
striving for independence and the increased importance of the peer group. According to McLeod
and Brown (1976) development during the period of adolescence results in the following
changes: 1) dependence on parental authority gives way to greater freedom and independence; 2)
there is an increase in sociability with increasing interest in peer relationships; and 3) there is
rapid change in the adolescent’s time budgeting, with more time spent outside the home.
According to Rosengren & Windahl (1989) behavioral changes at the different stages of
development are associated with different sets of needs and motives for media use. These
changes in turn provide frames of reference and perceptions that undoubtedly influence the
nature of media effects. Sullivan (Muss, 1988) states that late adolescence or young adulthood is
the period when the individual must learn to institute effective security measures that help him
cope with anxiety and reduce tension. A major obstacle to development might occur if the
individual attempts to escape the anxiety of adult responsibility by avoiding reality-oriented
behavior and engaging in daydreaming or fantasy.
Thus based on the assumption that children at different stages of cognitive and social
development use media differently we hypothesize that:
H1: There will be differences between age groups in amount of time spent using video
games
H2: There will be differences between age groups in the type of video games preferred


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