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Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Unformatted Document Text:  Exposure and Attention 1 Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research Abstract The present study examines adolescents’ self-reports of exposure to cigarette advertising in magazines, self-reported attention to cigarette ads, and memory for cigarette ads. The central question of interest was whether a multiplicative model or an additive model of the effects of exposure and attention would better predict memory for cigarette ads. Surveys were administered to 242 adolescents. To assess exposure, the survey included questions regarding how often and how thoroughly participants read 46 magazines with varying levels of cigarette advertising (assessed using content analyses). The results indicated that an additive model of the effects of exposure and attention was superior to a multiplicative model for these data. Moreover, analyses indicated that there are psychometric problems associated with some approaches to using multiplicative measures that may cause them to provide unreliable or easily misinterpreted results. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed, including problems associated with inferring media effects from association with measures of attention, and preferred analytic strategies for examining weighted products of exposure and attention are recommended.

Authors: Aloise-Young, Patricia. and Slater, Michael.
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Exposure and Attention
1
Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Abstract
The present study examines adolescents’ self-reports of exposure to cigarette advertising in
magazines, self-reported attention to cigarette ads, and memory for cigarette ads. The central
question of interest was whether a multiplicative model or an additive model of the effects of
exposure and attention would better predict memory for cigarette ads. Surveys were
administered to 242 adolescents. To assess exposure, the survey included questions regarding
how often and how thoroughly participants read 46 magazines with varying levels of cigarette
advertising (assessed using content analyses). The results indicated that an additive model of the
effects of exposure and attention was superior to a multiplicative model for these data.
Moreover, analyses indicated that there are psychometric problems associated with some
approaches to using multiplicative measures that may cause them to provide unreliable or easily
misinterpreted results. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed, including
problems associated with inferring media effects from association with measures of attention,
and preferred analytic strategies for examining weighted products of exposure and attention are
recommended.


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