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Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Unformatted Document Text:  Exposure and Attention 10 pay attention to and how many they look at for at least 5 seconds. There were four response alternatives for each question: (a) none, (b) some, (c) about half, and (d) most. These attention measures were averaged (alpha = .79). Recognition and recall of cigarette advertisements. Participants were also shown six magazine advertisements (four cigarette ads and two foils, see Stimuli section below). The images were approximately 6 square inches and all six ads were presented on a single page. Participants were told “We’re going to show you 6 ads that have been published in magazines. For each one we want you to tell us whether or not you’ve seen it, and if you have, what brand is being advertised.” The response alternatives were: (a) definitely haven’t seen; (b) maybe have seen; (c) definitely have seen 1-3 times; and (d) definitely have seen more than 3 times. Participants were also asked to write in the brand being advertised. Two memory measures were derived from these responses: (a) the number of cigarette advertisements correctly identified (from 0 to 4) and (b) the mean perceived exposure for the four cigarette ads. A foil score was also obtained by computing the mean for the two foils. The two memory measures were standardized to z scores and averaged to form the recognition measure. Stimuli Cigarette advertisements. Four cigarette advertisements that appeared in magazines during 1999 were edited and included as stimuli. All of the ads featured human characters. Three of the four ads were color, one was black and white. All brand name information was removed, as were warnings from the Surgeon General. Ads that contained images of people smoking were altered to remove the cigarettes. The brands represented in these advertisements were: Marlboro, Kool, Winston, and Virginia Slims. Adolescent exposure to advertising for

Authors: Aloise-Young, Patricia. and Slater, Michael.
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Exposure and Attention
10

pay attention to and how many they look at for at least 5 seconds. There were four response
alternatives for each question: (a) none, (b) some, (c) about half, and (d) most. These attention
measures were averaged (alpha = .79).
Recognition and recall of cigarette advertisements. Participants were also shown six
magazine advertisements (four cigarette ads and two foils, see Stimuli section below). The
images were approximately 6 square inches and all six ads were presented on a single page.
Participants were told “We’re going to show you 6 ads that have been published in magazines.
For each one we want you to tell us whether or not you’ve seen it, and if you have, what brand is
being advertised.” The response alternatives were: (a) definitely haven’t seen; (b) maybe have
seen; (c) definitely have seen 1-3 times; and (d) definitely have seen more than 3 times.
Participants were also asked to write in the brand being advertised. Two memory measures were
derived from these responses: (a) the number of cigarette advertisements correctly identified
(from 0 to 4) and (b) the mean perceived exposure for the four cigarette ads. A foil score was
also obtained by computing the mean for the two foils. The two memory measures were
standardized to z scores and averaged to form the recognition measure.
Stimuli
Cigarette advertisements. Four cigarette advertisements that appeared in magazines
during 1999 were edited and included as stimuli. All of the ads featured human characters.
Three of the four ads were color, one was black and white. All brand name information was
removed, as were warnings from the Surgeon General. Ads that contained images of people
smoking were altered to remove the cigarettes. The brands represented in these advertisements
were: Marlboro, Kool, Winston, and Virginia Slims. Adolescent exposure to advertising for


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