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Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Unformatted Document Text:  Exposure and Attention 11 these brands tends to be high (Pucci & Siegel, 1999). Foils. Two non-cigarette advertisements were included as foils. These ads appeared in a French language magazine to which few American adolescents would be exposed. One ad depicted a woman hanging/swinging from the branch of a tree. The other depicted a man and woman at a breakfast table drinking coffee. One of the ads was color, the other was black and white. Multiplicative measures Two multiplicative measures were formed from the exposure and the attention measures. First, the raw values for the two measures were multiplied. This multiplicative measure ranged from 0 to 13,417.88. Second, exposure and attention were centered to a mean of zero by subtracting the group mean from each individual’s score. Then, the two mean-centered variables were multiplied. This second multiplicative measure ranged from -1760.03 to 4924.45. Results Comparison of different measures of cigarette advertising exposure To see how strongly interrelated the various measures were we performed a series of correlations. Given that we were interested to determine whether the potential problems suggested by Evans (1991) would be applicable, we compared correlations for raw variables with correlations for mean-centered variables. Correlations are presented in Table 2. Correlations shown above the diagonal are for measures with a mean of zero (and the multiplicative measure formed from mean-centered variables). Correlations below the diagonal are for raw scores. Several interesting findings emerge from these correlations. First, it should be noted that these correlations are very modest. Researchers who use direct (recognition or recall) and

Authors: Aloise-Young, Patricia. and Slater, Michael.
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Exposure and Attention
11

these brands tends to be high (Pucci & Siegel, 1999).
Foils. Two non-cigarette advertisements were included as foils. These ads appeared in a
French language magazine to which few American adolescents would be exposed. One ad
depicted a woman hanging/swinging from the branch of a tree. The other depicted a man and
woman at a breakfast table drinking coffee. One of the ads was color, the other was black and
white.
Multiplicative measures
Two multiplicative measures were formed from the exposure and the attention measures.
First, the raw values for the two measures were multiplied. This multiplicative measure ranged
from 0 to 13,417.88. Second, exposure and attention were centered to a mean of zero by
subtracting the group mean from each individual’s score. Then, the two mean-centered variables
were multiplied. This second multiplicative measure ranged from -1760.03 to 4924.45.
Results
Comparison of different measures of cigarette advertising exposure
To see how strongly interrelated the various measures were we performed a series of
correlations. Given that we were interested to determine whether the potential problems
suggested by Evans (1991) would be applicable, we compared correlations for raw variables with
correlations for mean-centered variables. Correlations are presented in Table 2. Correlations
shown above the diagonal are for measures with a mean of zero (and the multiplicative measure
formed from mean-centered variables). Correlations below the diagonal are for raw scores.
Several interesting findings emerge from these correlations. First, it should be noted that
these correlations are very modest. Researchers who use direct (recognition or recall) and


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