All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Unformatted Document Text:  Exposure and Attention 6 advertising. Such an examination may inform theoretical models of the joint effects of these two processes, and provide a methodological framework for joint analyses of these variables. Self-reported Media Use versus Recognition Memory As noted earlier, exposure itself can be operationalized in a variety of ways. One commonly-used approach is to obtain self-reports of use of various media (typically associated with content analytic studies of relevant content in those media). Another is to assess recognition memory by showing respondents examples of message stimuli. (Recognition measures are usually preferred over uncued recall measures, as recall is likely to be confounded with attention, motivation, and prior knowledge, see Shapiro, 1994). Each method is likely to have strengths and pitfalls. Recognition measures are prone to problems with false positives, as messages may often seem familiar or resemble other messages seen by the respondent–or the respondent may simply wish to appear knowledgeable or compliant. This problem can often be addressed through use of foils, or false messages, though these need to be carefully constructed. If they are too similar to the real messages, they may easily be confused with the actual messages. If they are too different from messages in the social environment, they might be too easily dismissed because they are implausible, causing underestimates of the false recognition probability (Slater & Kelly, 2002). Recognition measurement may also pose problems with time lag (Slater & Kelly, 2002). Memory for messages may decay rapidly, and if measurement is not done within the same time-frame as actual exposure, the recognition measures are likely to be error-prone. Finally, such exposure measures may also be confounded with attention, prior knowledge, or other motivation-to- process variables. It is likely, after all, that messages will be more easily remembered and more

Authors: Aloise-Young, Patricia. and Slater, Michael.
first   previous   Page 6 of 26   next   last



background image
Exposure and Attention
6

advertising. Such an examination may inform theoretical models of the joint effects of these two
processes, and provide a methodological framework for joint analyses of these variables.
Self-reported Media Use versus Recognition Memory
As noted earlier, exposure itself can be operationalized in a variety of ways. One
commonly-used approach is to obtain self-reports of use of various media (typically associated
with content analytic studies of relevant content in those media). Another is to assess
recognition memory by showing respondents examples of message stimuli. (Recognition
measures are usually preferred over uncued recall measures, as recall is likely to be confounded
with attention, motivation, and prior knowledge, see Shapiro, 1994).
Each method is likely to have strengths and pitfalls. Recognition measures are prone to
problems with false positives, as messages may often seem familiar or resemble other messages
seen by the respondent–or the respondent may simply wish to appear knowledgeable or
compliant. This problem can often be addressed through use of foils, or false messages, though
these need to be carefully constructed. If they are too similar to the real messages, they may
easily be confused with the actual messages. If they are too different from messages in the social
environment, they might be too easily dismissed because they are implausible, causing
underestimates of the false recognition probability (Slater & Kelly, 2002). Recognition
measurement may also pose problems with time lag (Slater & Kelly, 2002). Memory for
messages may decay rapidly, and if measurement is not done within the same time-frame as
actual exposure, the recognition measures are likely to be error-prone. Finally, such exposure
measures may also be confounded with attention, prior knowledge, or other motivation-to-
process variables. It is likely, after all, that messages will be more easily remembered and more


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 6 of 26   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.