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Analyzing Exposure and Attention Variables in Media Effects Research
Unformatted Document Text:  Exposure and Attention 9 ranging from none to every issue. In addition, participants were asked “When you read magazine name do you usually...(a) read it from cover to cover; (b) read select articles and skim the rest of the magazine; (c) skim the whole magazine; (d) read select articles only; (e) skim parts of the magazine; or (f) I have not read magazine name this year.” Thus, three alternatives indicated exposure to whole magazine, two to part of the magazine and one to zero exposure. The two magazine ratings were combined to form a measure of exposure to the contents of each magazine. Specifically, responses to the frequency measure ranged from 0 to 4. Participants who indicated that they had been exposed to the whole magazine (alternatives a, b, and c above) received their full frequency score for that magazine. For participants who indicated that they had been exposed to only part of the magazine (alternatives d and e above), the frequency score was scaled down to one-half of its original value. Participants who indicated that they had not read the magazine received a score of 0. Of the 46 magazines, 29 included cigarette advertising. Information about the amount of cigarette advertising contained in each of these magazines from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999 was obtained from Competitive Media Reporting Inc. These figures are provided in Table 1. Self-reported advertising exposure was computed by multiplying the readership score for each of those 29 magazines by its corresponding amount of cigarette advertising. A total was obtained by summing the amounts for the magazines. 2 Attention to cigarette advertising. Participants were also asked to self-report how much attention they pay to cigarette advertising. Specifically, they were told, “Magazines often have ads for cigarettes. We want to know whether you pay attention to these ads, or whether you just turn the page without really looking at them.” Participants were then asked how many ads they

Authors: Aloise-Young, Patricia. and Slater, Michael.
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Exposure and Attention
9

ranging from none to every issue. In addition, participants were asked “When you read
magazine name do you usually...(a) read it from cover to cover; (b) read select articles and skim
the rest of the magazine; (c) skim the whole magazine; (d) read select articles only; (e) skim
parts of the magazine; or (f) I have not read magazine name this year.” Thus, three alternatives
indicated exposure to whole magazine, two to part of the magazine and one to zero exposure.
The two magazine ratings were combined to form a measure of exposure to the contents of each
magazine. Specifically, responses to the frequency measure ranged from 0 to 4. Participants who
indicated that they had been exposed to the whole magazine (alternatives a, b, and c above)
received their full frequency score for that magazine. For participants who indicated that they
had been exposed to only part of the magazine (alternatives d and e above), the frequency score
was scaled down to one-half of its original value. Participants who indicated that they had not
read the magazine received a score of 0.
Of the 46 magazines, 29 included cigarette advertising. Information about the amount of
cigarette advertising contained in each of these magazines from January 1, 1999 to December 31,
1999 was obtained from Competitive Media Reporting Inc. These figures are provided in Table
1. Self-reported advertising exposure was computed by multiplying the readership score for each
of those 29 magazines by its corresponding amount of cigarette advertising. A total was
obtained by summing the amounts for the magazines.
2
Attention to cigarette advertising. Participants were also asked to self-report how much
attention they pay to cigarette advertising. Specifically, they were told, “Magazines often have
ads for cigarettes. We want to know whether you pay attention to these ads, or whether you just
turn the page without really looking at them.” Participants were then asked how many ads they


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