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Exploring the Relationship Between Hurtful Messages and Partner Attachment
Unformatted Document Text:  Hurt and Attachment 22 estimates showed significant relationships between attachment tendencies and perceptions of HMs. Despite the factor structure being previously confirmed, the reliability of the dismissive- avoidance items was relatively low. Stronger relationships between dismissive-avoidant tendencies and frequency of HMs as well as degree of hurt may have been found if the reliability had been higher. An increase of couples included in future research may alleviate this problem. Implications for specific romantic attachments are evident. However, Le Poire et al. (1997; 1999) argue that the romantic attachment of the partner should also be considered. Future research should thus make efforts to examine the impact of the partner’s attachment. In other words, do secures with dismissive-avoidant partners experience more HMs than secures partnered with other secures? It is likely, for instance, that preoccupieds paired with dismissive- avoidants are likely to experience the most HMs, while secures paired with other secures will likely experience the least HMs. This analysis, while complex, may explicate the underlying reasons for the results found here. Another area for future research is the role of HMs in the development of parental attachment. Attachment theory argues that, based on the responsivity of parents, infants develop working models of expectations for other relationships. While the results of the current investigation do not speak directly to this issue, they do suggest that HMs and attachment styles are related. Thus, it is possible that infants develop their attachment in part due to HMs (or lack thereof) that they receive from their parents. This speculation provides much impetus for future research on the effects of parental hurtful messages on parental attachment. Future research could also explore the influence of other variables on the association between attachment styles and HMs. This study found that gender was related to frequency of

Authors: Dailey, Rene. and Le Poire, Beth.
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Hurt and Attachment 22
estimates showed significant relationships between attachment tendencies and perceptions of
HMs.
Despite the factor structure being previously confirmed, the reliability of the dismissive-
avoidance items was relatively low. Stronger relationships between dismissive-avoidant
tendencies and frequency of HMs as well as degree of hurt may have been found if the reliability
had been higher. An increase of couples included in future research may alleviate this problem.
Implications for specific romantic attachments are evident. However, Le Poire et al.
(1997; 1999) argue that the romantic attachment of the partner should also be considered. Future
research should thus make efforts to examine the impact of the partner’s attachment. In other
words, do secures with dismissive-avoidant partners experience more HMs than secures
partnered with other secures? It is likely, for instance, that preoccupieds paired with dismissive-
avoidants are likely to experience the most HMs, while secures paired with other secures will
likely experience the least HMs. This analysis, while complex, may explicate the underlying
reasons for the results found here.
Another area for future research is the role of HMs in the development of parental
attachment. Attachment theory argues that, based on the responsivity of parents, infants develop
working models of expectations for other relationships. While the results of the current
investigation do not speak directly to this issue, they do suggest that HMs and attachment styles
are related. Thus, it is possible that infants develop their attachment in part due to HMs (or lack
thereof) that they receive from their parents. This speculation provides much impetus for future
research on the effects of parental hurtful messages on parental attachment.
Future research could also explore the influence of other variables on the association
between attachment styles and HMs. This study found that gender was related to frequency of


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