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A Multidimensional Approach to the Study of Media Effects
Unformatted Document Text:  11 McQuail (1994) also developed a useful typology of media effects by crossing just two dimensions--intention and time--which he treated as continua. An effect could be placed anywhere along the time dimension, so that it might be a short-term effect but longer than another short-term effect. Similarly, effects were not simply split into “intended” versus “unintended” but were located according to degree of “intentionality.” McQuail then took 15 different types of effects and located them on this map. The result gives an indication of the coordination of media effects in terms of how long it takes the effect to occur and how intentional it is. Of course, someone (in this case McQuail) has to make these determinations, that is, fix the coordinates for each effect. Thus, according to McQuail, the longest-term, most unplanned media effect (of those he identified) is cultural change. In contrast, news learning is a planned, short-term effect. McQuail distinguished the planned “individual response” of individuals to media stimuli--relatively predictable changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavior--from the more unintentional “individual reaction,” which represents unanticipated, often negative

Authors: Lasorsa, Dominic.
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11
McQuail (1994) also developed a useful typology of media effects by crossing just
two dimensions--intention and time--which he treated as continua. An effect could be
placed anywhere along the time dimension, so that it might be a short-term effect but
longer than another short-term effect. Similarly, effects were not simply split into
“intended” versus “unintended” but were located according to degree of “intentionality.”
McQuail then took 15 different types of effects and located them on this map.
The result gives an indication of the coordination of media effects in terms of how long it
takes the effect to occur and how intentional it is. Of course, someone (in this case
McQuail) has to make these determinations, that is, fix the coordinates for each effect.
Thus, according to McQuail, the longest-term, most unplanned media effect (of those he
identified) is cultural change. In contrast, news learning is a planned, short-term effect.
McQuail distinguished the planned “individual response” of individuals to media
stimuli--relatively predictable changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavior--from the
more unintentional “individual reaction,” which represents unanticipated, often negative


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