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A Multidimensional Approach to the Study of Media Effects
Unformatted Document Text:  12 imitation and learning effects, such as aggression and deviance. “Collective reaction” refers to the relatively unplanned individual effects that are experienced simultaneously by many people, leading to joint action, including panic and civil disturbance. Interestingly, of the 15 media effects McQuail identified, 10 are relatively long- term effects and six of these are unplanned. The four effects in the long-term, planned effects quadrant all have to do with diffusion, the most intentional being the diffusion of innovations for purposes of long-term development (“diffusion in development”). Among the six long-term effects in the unplanned quadrant are (from most unplanned to relatively more planned): cultural change, institutional change, socialization and social control. Also in this quadrant are “event outcomes,” which refers to the part played by the media in conjunction with institutional forces in the course and resolution of major critical events, such as major domestic upheavals and wars. The final unplanned, long-term effect, “reality defining,” refers to the social construction of meaning, which McQuail regarded as a “very extensive” media effect. McQuail’s matrix looks like this:

Authors: Lasorsa, Dominic.
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12
imitation and learning effects, such as aggression and deviance. “Collective reaction”
refers to the relatively unplanned individual effects that are experienced simultaneously
by many people, leading to joint action, including panic and civil disturbance.
Interestingly, of the 15 media effects McQuail identified, 10 are relatively long-
term effects and six of these are unplanned. The four effects in the long-term, planned
effects quadrant all have to do with diffusion, the most intentional being the diffusion of
innovations for purposes of long-term development (“diffusion in development”).
Among the six long-term effects in the unplanned quadrant are (from most
unplanned to relatively more planned): cultural change, institutional change, socialization
and social control. Also in this quadrant are “event outcomes,” which refers to the part
played by the media in conjunction with institutional forces in the course and resolution
of major critical events, such as major domestic upheavals and wars. The final
unplanned, long-term effect, “reality defining,” refers to the social construction of
meaning, which McQuail regarded as a “very extensive” media effect. McQuail’s matrix
looks like this:


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