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Have women journalists in Israel really integrated into the profession?
Unformatted Document Text:  5 in Israel far outnumber men in mass communication classrooms. Between 1995 and 1998, the percentage of women at the three communication departments in Israeli universities 17 was from 63% to 80%. 18 . As mentioned, these rates are much higher than the proportion of women working in the field, suggesting that female graduates are less likely to find themselves employed in the profession than male graduates. Furthermore, in contrast with the increased rate of Israeli women students in journalism and communication during the 1990’s this study indicates that the feminizing trend in the daily newspapers of the last three decades has reached a plateau or at least has lagged during 1995-1998 19 . Moreover a significant difference was found ( χ 2 =7.504; df=2; p<0.05) in the proportion of women and men hired between 1995-1998, when women were less likely to be hired (5% compared to 10%). A slowdown of the feminization process is evident in recent years in other countries as well. For example, in a survey conducted in 1992 among American journalists no increase was found in the percentage of women hired, by comparison with that of the previous decade, despite the increase in female studying journalism and communication and the industry efforts to recruit more women 20 . A more recent American source (newsroom census done by the American Society of Newspaper Editors) also found that the percentage of women working in newsrooms has not changed while women continue to represent 60% or more of students in college journalism programs 21 . Other examples from around the world exist. In New Zealand, the percentage of women journalists is very high (45%) and the feminization process was stabilized during the 80’s and the beginning of the 90’s 22 . In Germany, the number of all jobs in journalism in the eastern part of the country had decreased during 1989-1992 in 30% as a result of the reunification. Women were the main losers: their share of jobs dropped from about 60% to 38% of the total 23 . According to

Authors: Lachover, Einat.
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5
in Israel far outnumber men in mass communication classrooms. Between 1995 and
1998, the percentage of women at the three communication departments in Israeli
universities
17
was from 63% to 80%.
18
. As mentioned, these rates are much higher
than the proportion of women working in the field, suggesting that female graduates
are less likely to find themselves employed in the profession than male graduates.
Furthermore, in contrast with the increased rate of Israeli women students in
journalism and communication during the 1990’s this study indicates that the
feminizing trend in the daily newspapers of the last three decades has reached a
plateau or at least has lagged during 1995-1998
19
. Moreover a significant difference
was found (
χ
2
=7.504; df=2; p<0.05) in the proportion of women and men hired
between 1995-1998, when women were less likely to be hired (5% compared to 10%).
A slowdown of the feminization process is evident in recent years in other
countries as well. For example, in a survey conducted in 1992 among American
journalists no increase was found in the percentage of women hired, by comparison
with that of the previous decade, despite the increase in female studying journalism
and communication and the industry efforts to recruit more women
20
. A more recent
American source (newsroom census done by the American Society of Newspaper
Editors) also found that the percentage of women working in newsrooms has not
changed while women continue to represent 60% or more of students in college
journalism programs
21
. Other examples from around the world exist. In New Zealand,
the percentage of women journalists is very high (45%) and the feminization process
was stabilized during the 80’s and the beginning of the 90’s
22
. In Germany, the
number of all jobs in journalism in the eastern part of the country had decreased
during 1989-1992 in 30% as a result of the reunification. Women were the main
losers: their share of jobs dropped from about 60% to 38% of the total
23
. According to


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