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Home is Where You Serve: Globalization and Nationalism in Korean Popular Music
Unformatted Document Text:  3 intersections of the local with the global, theorized in terms of mestizaje (Martin- Barbero,1993, cited in Kraidy, 1999), hybridity (Garcia-Canclini, 1990, 1995; Hall, 1991; Kraidy, 2002), creolisation (Hannerz, 1992; 1996), and transculturation (coined by F. Ortiz, cited in Pratt, 1992; Wallis and Malm, 1992). These critics have noted that the process of globalization is not a unitary process tending in a single direction but a complex set of changes with mixed and quite often contradictory outcomes. Giddens, for example, defines globalization as "the intensification of world-wide relations which link distinct localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events many miles away, and vice versa (Giddens, 1990)." In fact, globalization spreads the Western cultures into non-Western worlds by means of technological innovation of mass media, but at the same time facilitates renewal of local traditions and identities. The recent revival of nationalism and ethnic movements in various parts of the world shows some examples of the multi-directional consequences of globalization. Therefore, as Han suggests, the impact of globalization should be examined not only from the revised perspective of cultural imperialism but also as the process that is "intrinsically leading to a polycentric pluralism or diversity, particularly at the level of cultures and social movements" (Han, 1997: 3). Yet, the question is to what extent the analysis of the local is relevant in a world where globalization processes bypass the nation-state level. A recognition that all contemporary cultures are to some extent hybrid often misses the issue of power and overemphasizes the placeless-ness and spaceless-ness of the globalization process. It might be true that it is really hard to define the local at the level of nation-state in the highly standardized popular culture area. However, the hyper- globalization thesis, which predicts the rapid irrelevance and decline of the nation-state,

Authors: Lee, Hee-Eun.
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intersections of the local with the global, theorized in terms of mestizaje (Martin-
Barbero,1993, cited in Kraidy, 1999), hybridity (Garcia-Canclini, 1990, 1995; Hall, 1991;
Kraidy, 2002), creolisation (Hannerz, 1992; 1996), and transculturation (coined by F.
Ortiz, cited in Pratt, 1992; Wallis and Malm, 1992). These critics have noted that the
process of globalization is not a unitary process tending in a single direction but a
complex set of changes with mixed and quite often contradictory outcomes. Giddens, for
example, defines globalization as "the intensification of world-wide relations which link
distinct localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events many miles
away, and vice versa (Giddens, 1990)." In fact, globalization spreads the Western
cultures into non-Western worlds by means of technological innovation of mass media,
but at the same time facilitates renewal of local traditions and identities. The recent
revival of nationalism and ethnic movements in various parts of the world shows some
examples of the multi-directional consequences of globalization. Therefore, as Han
suggests, the impact of globalization should be examined not only from the revised
perspective of cultural imperialism but also as the process that is "intrinsically leading to
a polycentric pluralism or diversity, particularly at the level of cultures and social
movements" (Han, 1997: 3). Yet, the question is to what extent the analysis of the local is
relevant in a world where globalization processes bypass the nation-state level. A
recognition that all contemporary cultures are to some extent hybrid often misses the
issue of power and overemphasizes the placeless-ness and spaceless-ness of the
globalization process. It might be true that it is really hard to define the local at the level
of nation-state in the highly standardized popular culture area. However, the hyper-
globalization thesis, which predicts the rapid irrelevance and decline of the nation-state,


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