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'English as the Second Official Language of Japan?': Globalization, Hegemony of English, and Japanese National Identity
Unformatted Document Text:  English as the second official language 12 (1993) contends that “we pay more attention to ‘top-down’ relations of dominance than to ‘bottom-up’ relations of resistance, compliance and acceptance” (p. 250). For example, CDA is used to analyze a tabloid newspaper article on illegal immigration in Britain (van Dijk, 1996), and British, U.S. and French parliament or congress members’ political discourse (van Dijk, 1997), university brochures (Fairclough, 1993), women’s magazines (Caldas-Coulthard, 1996), or definitions of men and women in dictionaries (Hoey, 1996). According to Fairclough (1993; 1995), discourse—language use—is a form of social practice. Fairclough (1993) assumes that discourse is social action in the sense that it is “socially shaped, but it is also socially shaping, or constitutive” (p. 134). Discourse is influenced by various social and historical contexts and also influences what society is becoming. Discourse always simultaneously contains (1) social identities, (2) social relations, and (3) systems of knowledge and belief about the world (Fairclough, 1993; 1995). Discursive events are analyzed from three levels: text, discourse practice, and social practice (Fairclough, 1993; 1995). The analysis of the discursive event as text focuses on forms and meanings of text by exploring generic forms, dialogic organization, grammar, and vocabulary. The analysis of the discursive event as discourse practice pays attention to intertextuality or the relationship between one text and other texts. The analysis of the text as social practice means to investigate the text or the discursive event taking into account social, institutional, and cultural contexts. In the present study, I employ Fairclough’s (1993; 1995) CDA perspective to analyze what van Dijk (1993) calls “bottom-up” discourse. As Fairclough (1993) claims, discourse is socially shaped and socially constitutive. If so, it is imperative to include the analysis of “bottom up” discourse as well. Such an analysis is more complex because in contrast to the analysis of “top-down” discourse that tends to focus on domination, “bottom-up” discourse needs to take

Authors: Kawai, Yuko.
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English as the second official language 12
(1993) contends that “we pay more attention to ‘top-down’ relations of dominance than to
‘bottom-up’ relations of resistance, compliance and acceptance” (p. 250). For example, CDA is
used to analyze a tabloid newspaper article on illegal immigration in Britain (van Dijk, 1996),
and British, U.S. and French parliament or congress members’ political discourse (van Dijk,
1997), university brochures (Fairclough, 1993), women’s magazines (Caldas-Coulthard, 1996),
or definitions of men and women in dictionaries (Hoey, 1996).
According to Fairclough (1993; 1995), discourse—language use—is a form of social
practice. Fairclough (1993) assumes that discourse is social action in the sense that it is “socially
shaped, but it is also socially shaping, or constitutive” (p. 134). Discourse is influenced by
various social and historical contexts and also influences what society is becoming. Discourse
always simultaneously contains (1) social identities, (2) social relations, and (3) systems of
knowledge and belief about the world (Fairclough, 1993; 1995). Discursive events are analyzed
from three levels: text, discourse practice, and social practice (Fairclough, 1993; 1995). The
analysis of the discursive event as text focuses on forms and meanings of text by exploring
generic forms, dialogic organization, grammar, and vocabulary. The analysis of the discursive
event as discourse practice pays attention to intertextuality or the relationship between one text
and other texts. The analysis of the text as social practice means to investigate the text or the
discursive event taking into account social, institutional, and cultural contexts.
In the present study, I employ Fairclough’s (1993; 1995) CDA perspective to analyze
what van Dijk (1993) calls “bottom-up” discourse. As Fairclough (1993) claims, discourse is
socially shaped and socially constitutive. If so, it is imperative to include the analysis of “bottom
up” discourse as well. Such an analysis is more complex because in contrast to the analysis of
“top-down” discourse that tends to focus on domination, “bottom-up” discourse needs to take


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