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Diagnosticity of Masculinity and Femininity in Processing Advertising Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  11 score low on masculinity will not think that product beliefs are diagnostic or important in their brand evaluations. Hypothesis 2: The influences of product beliefs in formulating product evaluations are determined by subjects’ self-concepts with regard to masculinity: (a) for subjects who score high on masculinity and high on femininity, their product beliefs will have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the variance of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account; (b) for subjects who score high on masculinity and low on femininity, their product beliefs will have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account; (c) for subjects who score low on masculinity and high on femininity, their product beliefs will not have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account; (d) for subjects who score low on masculinity and low on femininity, their product beliefs will not have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account. Diagnosticity of Ad-Self-Congruency with Regard to Masculinity and Femininity for Different Products Within consumer behavior literature, it is generally accepted that products differ in nature. For example, products have been grouped into two general categories: utilitarian/think products and hedonic/feel products (Rossiter & Percy, 1987). Other researchers suggest that some products can serve both functions at the same time (e.g., Ratchford, 1987). In general, the purpose of utilitarian products is to solve consumption-related problems or to reduce negative states, therefore, utilitarian products are more likely to appeal to utilitarian functions. On the

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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score low on masculinity will not think that product beliefs are diagnostic or important in their
brand evaluations.
Hypothesis 2: The influences of product beliefs in formulating product evaluations are
determined by subjects’ self-concepts with regard to masculinity:
(a) for subjects who score high on masculinity and high on femininity, their product
beliefs will have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the variance
of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account;
(b) for subjects who score high on masculinity and low on femininity, their product
beliefs will have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the
influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account;
(c) for subjects who score low on masculinity and high on femininity, their product
beliefs will not have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the
influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account;
(d) for subjects who score low on masculinity and low on femininity, their product
beliefs will not have a significant impact on their brand evaluations when the
influence of ad attitudes on brand evaluations is also taken into account.
Diagnosticity of Ad-Self-Congruency with Regard to Masculinity and
Femininity for Different Products
Within consumer behavior literature, it is generally accepted that products differ in nature.
For example, products have been grouped into two general categories: utilitarian/think products
and hedonic/feel products (Rossiter & Percy, 1987). Other researchers suggest that some
products can serve both functions at the same time (e.g., Ratchford, 1987). In general, the
purpose of utilitarian products is to solve consumption-related problems or to reduce negative
states, therefore, utilitarian products are more likely to appeal to utilitarian functions. On the


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