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Diagnosticity of Masculinity and Femininity in Processing Advertising Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  15 individuals exhibit can be attributed to their strong beliefs in self-efficacy. In addition, Conway and Dube (2002) have shown that masculinity, described as an instrumental orientation and reflected in characteristics such as being forceful and dominant, is associated with a distress-avoidance orientation. On the other hand, femininity consists of a communal orientation and is reflected in characteristics such as being sensitive to the needs of others and being sympathetic. Therefore, individuals who score high on femininity, as opposed to individuals who score low on femininity, have been shown to respond differently to sadness, a prototypical type of negative affective feeling. For example, it has been demonstrated that high-feminine subjects reported more rumination in response to sadness than low-feminine subjects (Conway, Giannopoulos & Stiefenhofer, 1990). Research concerning the enjoyment of sad films has also indicated that individuals’ femininity is positively associated with their favorable appraisals of sad films (Choti, et al., 1989; Oliver, 1993). Other research has indicated that individuals who score high on femininity tend to construct more sensitive and person-centered comforting communication strategies than individuals who score low on femininity (Winters & Waltman, 1997). Taken together, an individual’s degree of femininity is associated with characteristics that are responsive to sadness. This study thus argues that context-induced affective states will prime ad-self-congruency with regard to masculinity or femininity depending on the congruency between the induced affective state and the personality dimension. Specifically, a happy affective state induced by depicting a happy and upbeat scenario should be more congruent with the instrumental traits in the masculinity dimension and enhance the relevancy of the masculinity dimension in judgments. As a result, when subjects are in positive affective states, they will rely on their ad-self-congruency with regard to masculinity in formulating their ad evaluations. In contrast,

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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individuals exhibit can be attributed to their strong beliefs in self-efficacy. In addition, Conway
and Dube (2002) have shown that masculinity, described as an instrumental orientation and
reflected in characteristics such as being forceful and dominant, is associated with a
distress-avoidance orientation.
On the other hand, femininity consists of a communal orientation and is reflected in
characteristics such as being sensitive to the needs of others and being sympathetic. Therefore,
individuals who score high on femininity, as opposed to individuals who score low on femininity,
have been shown to respond differently to sadness, a prototypical type of negative affective
feeling. For example, it has been demonstrated that high-feminine subjects reported more
rumination in response to sadness than low-feminine subjects (Conway, Giannopoulos &
Stiefenhofer, 1990). Research concerning the enjoyment of sad films has also indicated that
individuals’ femininity is positively associated with their favorable appraisals of sad films (Choti,
et al., 1989; Oliver, 1993). Other research has indicated that individuals who score high on
femininity tend to construct more sensitive and person-centered comforting communication
strategies than individuals who score low on femininity (Winters & Waltman, 1997). Taken
together, an individual’s degree of femininity is associated with characteristics that are
responsive to sadness.
This study thus argues that context-induced affective states will prime ad-self-congruency
with regard to masculinity or femininity depending on the congruency between the induced
affective state and the personality dimension. Specifically, a happy affective state induced by
depicting a happy and upbeat scenario should be more congruent with the instrumental traits in
the masculinity dimension and enhance the relevancy of the masculinity dimension in judgments.
As a result, when subjects are in positive affective states, they will rely on their
ad-self-congruency with regard to masculinity in formulating their ad evaluations. In contrast,


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