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Diagnosticity of Masculinity and Femininity in Processing Advertising Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  27 of positive emotions (F(1, 321)= 26.27, p < .01, M positive = 4.54, SD = .08, M negative = 3.94, SD = .09) than did those in the negative affective state condition. On the other hand, subjects in the negative affective state condition generated significantly higher ratings on the subscale of negative emotions (F(1, 321)= 23.20, p < .01, M positive = 3.21, SD = .09, M negative = 3.93, SD = .09) than did those in the positive affective state condition. Therefore, the results of the manipulation checks were satisfactory. The Interaction between Emotional Responses and Ad-self-congruency with Regard to Masculinity and Femininity The interactions between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on masculinity and femininity were calculated. Emotional responses were estimated by summing and averaging subjects’ responses to positive emotions and their reversed responses to negative emotions. The interaction between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on masculinity was calculated by multiplying emotional responses with ad-self-congruency on masculinity, whereas the interaction between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on femininity was calculated by multiplying emotional responses with ad-self-congruency on femininity. Dependent Measures Ad Attitude A 5-item 7-point Likert scale was used to measure subjects’ attitudes toward the ads. The items were adopted from MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) and Madden, Allen, and Twible (1988). The five items were: “interesting,” “good,” “likable,” “favorable” and “pleasant.” Cronbach’s reliability alpha of ad attitudes was deemed satisfactory at .93. Results and Analyses Hypothesis five suggests that subjects’ affective states will have an impact on the relative importance of ad-self-congruency on masculinity and femininity in determining their ad attitudes.

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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27
of positive emotions (F(1, 321)= 26.27, p < .01, M
positive
= 4.54, SD = .08, M
negative
= 3.94, SD
= .09) than did those in the negative affective state condition. On the other hand, subjects in the
negative affective state condition generated significantly higher ratings on the subscale of
negative emotions (F(1, 321)= 23.20, p < .01, M
positive
= 3.21, SD = .09, M
negative
= 3.93, SD = .09)
than did those in the positive affective state condition. Therefore, the results of the
manipulation checks were satisfactory.
The Interaction between Emotional Responses and Ad-self-congruency with Regard to
Masculinity and Femininity
The interactions between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on masculinity and
femininity were calculated. Emotional responses were estimated by summing and averaging
subjects’ responses to positive emotions and their reversed responses to negative emotions. The
interaction between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on masculinity was calculated
by multiplying emotional responses with ad-self-congruency on masculinity, whereas the
interaction between emotional responses and ad-self-congruency on femininity was calculated by
multiplying emotional responses with ad-self-congruency on femininity.
Dependent Measures
Ad Attitude
A 5-item 7-point Likert scale was used to measure subjects’ attitudes toward the ads. The
items were adopted from MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) and Madden, Allen, and Twible
(1988). The five items were: “interesting,” “good,” “likable,” “favorable” and “pleasant.”
Cronbach’s reliability alpha of ad attitudes was deemed satisfactory at .93.
Results and Analyses
Hypothesis five suggests that subjects’ affective states will have an impact on the relative
importance of ad-self-congruency on masculinity and femininity in determining their ad attitudes.


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