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Diagnosticity of Masculinity and Femininity in Processing Advertising Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  38 Yi, Z. (1990a). The effects of contextual priming in print advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 215-222. Yi, Z. (1990b). Cognitive and affective priming effects of the context for print advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 19(2), 40-48. 1 Hofstede (1998) has argued that a country culture is either predominantly feminine or predominantly masculine and therefore, at the culture level, it is appropriate to treat masculinity and femininity as one single dimension. 2 According to Hofstede (1998), a masculine society is one in which men are expected to be “assertive, tough, and focused on material success”, whereas women are expected to be “more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life” (p. 6). On the other hand, a feminine society is one in which both men and women are expected to be “modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life" (p.7). 3 There exists the ideal self, in addition to the real self. Indeed, a person’s ideal self has been shown to be substantially correlated with his/her real self (Landon, 1974). Most importantly, the pursuit of the ideal self acts as an important guide for product consumption behaviors (e.g., Sirgy, 1982). It has also been shown that when processing advertising messages, both the congruency between real self-image and product image and the congruency between ideal self-image and product image can affect their responses to the brand (Chang, 2001). Therefore, this study will mainly focus on the ideal self.

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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38
Yi, Z. (1990a). The effects of contextual priming in print advertising. Journal of Consumer
Research, 17, 215-222.
Yi, Z. (1990b). Cognitive and affective priming effects of the context for print
advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 19(2), 40-48.
1
Hofstede (1998) has argued that a country culture is either predominantly feminine or predominantly masculine
and therefore, at the culture level, it is appropriate to treat masculinity and femininity as one single dimension.
2
According to Hofstede (1998), a masculine society is one in which men are expected to be “assertive, tough, and
focused on material success”, whereas women are expected to be “more modest, tender, and concerned with the
quality of life” (p. 6). On the other hand, a feminine society is one in which both men and women are expected to
be “modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life" (p.7).
3
There exists the ideal self, in addition to the real self. Indeed, a person’s ideal self has been shown to be
substantially correlated with his/her real self (Landon, 1974). Most importantly, the pursuit of the ideal self acts as
an important guide for product consumption behaviors (e.g., Sirgy, 1982). It has also been shown that when
processing advertising messages, both the congruency between real self-image and product image and the
congruency between ideal self-image and product image can affect their responses to the brand (Chang, 2001).
Therefore, this study will mainly focus on the ideal self.


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