All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Diagnosticity of Masculinity and Femininity in Processing Advertising Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  5 femininity is associated with "an ‘expressive’ orientation, an affective concern for the welfare of others and the harmony of the group" (p. 1016). Bem (1981) proposed a model, gender schema theory, which concerns the masculine and feminine dimensions of individual differences. According to Bem’s gender schema theory, a gender schema contains two main sub-dimensions: masculinity and femininity (Bem, 1974). Those who rate themselves high on one dimension and low on the other are categorized as sex-typed, whereas those who rate themselves high or low on both dimensions are non-sex-typed. Her model proposes that sex-typed individuals are gender schematic with regard to both masculine- and feminine-pertinent information, whereas non-sex-typed individuals are aschematic with regard to information relevant to either dimension. As a result, these two types of people process information in different ways. Sex-typed individuals have a higher tendency to engage in gender-based schematic processing regarding both masculine and feminine information than non-sex-typed individuals. For example, gender schematic individuals have a higher level of readiness to process and assimilate information in terms of masculinity and femininity than gender aschematic individuals (Bem, 1981). Bem (1974) specifically developed her Sex Role Inventory to measure subjects’ masculinity and femininity. Respondents rate themselves on how well each of the traits in the inventory describes themselves. The subscale of masculinity is composed of 20 items, including items such as “aggressive,” “ambitious,” “assertive,” “competitive,” “independent,” “self-reliant,” etc. On the other hand, the subscale of femininity, also composed of 20 items, includes items such as “compassionate,” “gentle,” “understanding,” “sensitive to the needs of others,” “tender,” “warm,” etc. However, Spence and Helmereich (1981) have criticized Bem’s (1981) gender schema research by arguing that it is not appropriate to employ a two-dimensional measure to identify

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
first   previous   Page 5 of 38   next   last



background image
5
femininity is associated with "an ‘expressive’ orientation, an affective concern for the welfare of
others and the harmony of the group" (p. 1016).
Bem (1981) proposed a model, gender schema theory, which concerns the masculine and
feminine dimensions of individual differences. According to Bem’s gender schema theory, a
gender schema contains two main sub-dimensions: masculinity and femininity (Bem, 1974).
Those who rate themselves high on one dimension and low on the other are categorized as
sex-typed, whereas those who rate themselves high or low on both dimensions are non-sex-typed.
Her model proposes that sex-typed individuals are gender schematic with regard to both
masculine- and feminine-pertinent information, whereas non-sex-typed individuals are
aschematic with regard to information relevant to either dimension. As a result, these two types
of people process information in different ways. Sex-typed individuals have a higher tendency
to engage in gender-based schematic processing regarding both masculine and feminine
information than non-sex-typed individuals. For example, gender schematic individuals have a
higher level of readiness to process and assimilate information in terms of masculinity and
femininity than gender aschematic individuals (Bem, 1981).
Bem (1974) specifically developed her Sex Role Inventory to measure subjects’ masculinity
and femininity. Respondents rate themselves on how well each of the traits in the inventory
describes themselves. The subscale of masculinity is composed of 20 items, including items
such as “aggressive,” “ambitious,” “assertive,” “competitive,” “independent,” “self-reliant,” etc.
On the other hand, the subscale of femininity, also composed of 20 items, includes items such as
“compassionate,” “gentle,” “understanding,” “sensitive to the needs of others,” “tender,”
“warm,” etc.
However, Spence and Helmereich (1981) have criticized Bem’s (1981) gender schema
research by arguing that it is not appropriate to employ a two-dimensional measure to identify


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 5 of 38   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.