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Ad Repetition and Variation in a Competitive Ad Context
Unformatted Document Text:  18 For the repetition with cosmetic variation, the two Sperry ads featured the same product attributes, yet different visuals. Specifically, for the two-attribute condition, both ads featured the same two attributes. On the other hand, for the four-attribute condition, both ads addressed all four attributes. Two different visual formats were used for each of the two ads. The same Nike ad as in the no repetition condition was presented with the two Sperry ads in both the substantive/cosmetic variation condition and the cosmetic variation condition. Dependent Measures Ad Recognition Subjects were asked to check what had been presented in the ad from a list of eight product attributes. Product Beliefs Subjects were asked to rate how likely it was that the featured brand had the listed attributes. The four items were: “comfortable fit,” “durability,” “lightweight” and “breathability.” Brand Attitudes Brand attitudes were measured with a five-item seven-point Likert scale. The items were adopted from Mitchell and Olson (1981) and Holbrook and Batra (1987). They were: “good,” “like,” “pleasant,” “positive” and “good quality.” Cronbach’s reliability alpha for this scale was deemed satisfactory at .95. Brand Interest Subjects were asked to rate brand interest on a three-item seven-point Likert scale. The three items were: “interesting,” “fun,” and “in style.” Cronbach’s reliability alpha for this scale was deemed satisfactory at .92. Purchase Intention Subjects were asked to rate how likely they were to purchase the product in the future on a

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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18
For the repetition with cosmetic variation, the two Sperry ads featured the same product
attributes, yet different visuals. Specifically, for the two-attribute condition, both ads featured
the same two attributes. On the other hand, for the four-attribute condition, both ads addressed
all four attributes. Two different visual formats were used for each of the two ads.
The same Nike ad as in the no repetition condition was presented with the two Sperry ads in
both the substantive/cosmetic variation condition and the cosmetic variation condition.
Dependent Measures
Ad Recognition
Subjects were asked to check what had been presented in the ad from a list of eight product
attributes.
Product Beliefs
Subjects were asked to rate how likely it was that the featured brand had the listed attributes.
The four items were: “comfortable fit,” “durability,” “lightweight” and “breathability.”
Brand Attitudes
Brand attitudes were measured with a five-item seven-point Likert scale. The items were
adopted from Mitchell and Olson (1981) and Holbrook and Batra (1987). They were: “good,”
“like,” “pleasant,” “positive” and “good quality.” Cronbach’s reliability alpha for this scale was
deemed satisfactory at .95.
Brand Interest
Subjects were asked to rate brand interest on a three-item seven-point Likert scale. The
three items were: “interesting,” “fun,” and “in style.” Cronbach’s reliability alpha for this scale
was deemed satisfactory at .92.
Purchase Intention
Subjects were asked to rate how likely they were to purchase the product in the future on a


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