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Ad Repetition and Variation in a Competitive Ad Context
Unformatted Document Text:  2 Usually, ads appear in cluttered environments. It is common for television ads to be embedded in commercial pods containing ads for competing brands from the same product category. It is even more common for print ads to be inserted into magazines with multiple ads from the same product category containing similar messages. What concerns advertisers then, are the negative impacts of competitive interference on ad recall or even brand evaluations. Advertisers’ worries are indeed well justified. Research has demonstrated that, as the number of ads present in the ad processing environment increases, recall of brand information declines (Keller, 1991; Pillai, 1990; Webb & Ray, 1979). Moreover, brand evaluations for a target brand are reduced when multiple competing ads are present, as opposed to when no competing ads are in the context (e.g., Keller, 1991). Clutter effects on brand evaluations are most serious when the competing ads are from the same product category as the target brand (e.g., Baumgardner, et al., 1983). In light of competitive interference research, a natural question follows, “how can advertisers reduce the negative impacts of competitive interference?” Ad repetition may be one of the answers. Research exploring the relationship between media spending and ad effectiveness is concerned with determining what quantity of ad repetition will maximize advertising effects (e.g., Batra & Ray, 1986; Calder & Sternthal, 1980; Hawkins, Hoch, & Meyers-Levy, 2001; Ray, Sawyer, & Strong, 1971; Rethans, Swasy & Marks, 1986). In general, in terms of increasing ad recall and brand recall, repetition has been shown to generate positive effects (e.g., Batra & Ray, 1986; Burke & Srull, 1988). When brand evaluations are considered, it has been demonstrated that, at lower levels of repetition, brand evaluations improve. However, when the number of ad exposures reaches a relatively higher level, brand evaluations deteriorate (e.g., Rethans, et al., 1986). All of the findings seem to suggest that ad repetition, up to a certain level, may reverse the negative interference of competing ad messages.

Authors: Chang, Chingching.
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Usually, ads appear in cluttered environments. It is common for television ads to be
embedded in commercial pods containing ads for competing brands from the same product
category. It is even more common for print ads to be inserted into magazines with multiple ads
from the same product category containing similar messages. What concerns advertisers then,
are the negative impacts of competitive interference on ad recall or even brand evaluations.
Advertisers’ worries are indeed well justified. Research has demonstrated that, as the number
of ads present in the ad processing environment increases, recall of brand information declines
(Keller, 1991; Pillai, 1990; Webb & Ray, 1979). Moreover, brand evaluations for a target brand
are reduced when multiple competing ads are present, as opposed to when no competing ads are
in the context (e.g., Keller, 1991). Clutter effects on brand evaluations are most serious when
the competing ads are from the same product category as the target brand (e.g., Baumgardner, et
al., 1983).
In light of competitive interference research, a natural question follows, “how can
advertisers reduce the negative impacts of competitive interference?” Ad repetition may be one
of the answers. Research exploring the relationship between media spending and ad
effectiveness is concerned with determining what quantity of ad repetition will maximize
advertising effects (e.g., Batra & Ray, 1986; Calder & Sternthal, 1980; Hawkins, Hoch, &
Meyers-Levy, 2001; Ray, Sawyer, & Strong, 1971; Rethans, Swasy & Marks, 1986). In general,
in terms of increasing ad recall and brand recall, repetition has been shown to generate positive
effects (e.g., Batra & Ray, 1986; Burke & Srull, 1988). When brand evaluations are considered,
it has been demonstrated that, at lower levels of repetition, brand evaluations improve.
However, when the number of ad exposures reaches a relatively higher level, brand evaluations
deteriorate (e.g., Rethans, et al., 1986). All of the findings seem to suggest that ad repetition,
up to a certain level, may reverse the negative interference of competing ad messages.


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