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Relations Among Apology, Forgiveness, and Communicative Responses to Hurtful Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  Forgiveness and Communication 10 manipulation attempts, and relational threats—are associated with the motivation to retaliate against the partner (e.g., Guerrero & Afifi, 1999; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998). Distributive communication refers to directly aggressive behaviors such as verbally attacking the partner, being rude and/or sarcastic, and making accusations. Active distancing behaviors are indirectly aggressive, and include behaviors such as ignoring the partner and withholding affection. Manipulation attempts involve inducing negative emotional reactions through moves such as making the partner feel guilty or flirting with a third party to make the partner jealous. Relational threats involve threatening to de-escalate or terminate the relationship through behaviors such as dating other people, threatening to have sex with someone else, or breaking up. Two other communicative responses to jealousy—integrative communication and compensatory restoration—are associated with the motivation to maintain or repair the relationship (Guerrero & Afifi, 1999; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998). Integrative communication involves using direct, positive forms of communication such as talking about bothersome issues and expressing a desire to work things out, whereas compensatory restoration involves trying to repair the relationship through moves such as enhancing one’s appearance, buying the partner gifts, increasing affection, and complimenting the partner more often. An Integrative System for Measuring Responses to Hurtful Events. In a companion study to the present investigation, 51 items related to the above scales (from Emmers & Canary, 1998; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998; Rusbult, 1987; and Vangelisti & Crumley, 1992) were analyzed using principal components analysis (see X, cite omitted). It is noteworthy that some of the items associated with these scales are very similar. For example, both Guerrero and Andersen (1998) and Rusbult (1987) have items assessing whether the person threatened to end the relationship, and all four typologies include items related to decreasing communication. When items were highly similar only one of those items was included in the

Authors: Bachman, Guy. and Guerrero, Laura.
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Forgiveness and Communication 10
manipulation attempts, and relational threats—are associated with the motivation to retaliate
against the partner (e.g., Guerrero & Afifi, 1999; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998). Distributive
communication refers to directly aggressive behaviors such as verbally attacking the partner,
being rude and/or sarcastic, and making accusations. Active distancing behaviors are indirectly
aggressive, and include behaviors such as ignoring the partner and withholding affection.
Manipulation attempts involve inducing negative emotional reactions through moves such as
making the partner feel guilty or flirting with a third party to make the partner jealous.
Relational threats involve threatening to de-escalate or terminate the relationship through
behaviors such as dating other people, threatening to have sex with someone else, or breaking up.
Two other communicative responses to jealousy—integrative communication and compensatory
restoration—are associated with the motivation to maintain or repair the relationship (Guerrero
& Afifi, 1999; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998). Integrative communication involves using direct,
positive forms of communication such as talking about bothersome issues and expressing a
desire to work things out, whereas compensatory restoration involves trying to repair the
relationship through moves such as enhancing one’s appearance, buying the partner gifts,
increasing affection, and complimenting the partner more often.
An Integrative System for Measuring Responses to Hurtful Events.
In a companion study to the present investigation, 51 items related to the above scales
(from Emmers & Canary, 1998; Guerrero & Andersen, 1998; Rusbult, 1987; and Vangelisti &
Crumley, 1992) were analyzed using principal components analysis (see X, cite omitted). It is
noteworthy that some of the items associated with these scales are very similar. For example,
both Guerrero and Andersen (1998) and Rusbult (1987) have items assessing whether the person
threatened to end the relationship, and all four typologies include items related to decreasing
communication. When items were highly similar only one of those items was included in the


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