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Relations Among Apology, Forgiveness, and Communicative Responses to Hurtful Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  Forgiveness and Communication 19 communication. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that apology has both a direct and indirect association with integrative communication, with the indirect association involving forgiveness as a mediator. Despite this caveat, H4b was generally supported. Destructive Responses Associations with Apology. H5 predicted that apology would associate negatively with the four destructive responses to hurtful messages—(a) de-escalation, (b) revenge, (c) distributive communication, and (d) negative avoidance. When analyzing this hypothesis using bivariate correlations (see Table 2), both de-escalation and revenge obtained significant negative associations with apology, while distributive communication and negative avoidance showed nonsignificant associations with apology. Thus, H5a and H5b were supported, but H5c and H5d were not. The supplementary regression analysis, however, produced somewhat different findings, with de-escalation and distributive communication emerging as the only two significant predictors of apology, F(2,258)= 12.51, p < .001, R 2 = .09. Consistent with H5a, de-escalation associated negatively with apology, = -.32, t= -5.00, p < .001. Contrary to H5c, distributive communication associated positively with apology, = .13, t= 1.97, p < .05. Associations with Forgiveness. H6 predicted that forgiveness would associate negatively with de-escalation, revenge, distributive communication, and negative avoidance. Support was garnered for all four parts of this hypothesis when the bivariate correlations were considered (see Table 2), with the negative association between forgiveness and de-escalation proving to be the most robust. De-escalation emerged as the only significant predictor of forgiveness in the regression model. Forgiveness as a Mediator. The final hypothesis (H7) predicted that forgiveness would mediate the relationship between apology and destructive communication. As for the other mediation hypothesis, we first examined the bivariate correlations associated with the tests for

Authors: Bachman, Guy. and Guerrero, Laura.
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Forgiveness and Communication 19
communication. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that apology has both a direct and indirect
association with integrative communication, with the indirect association involving forgiveness
as a mediator. Despite this caveat, H4b was generally supported.
Destructive Responses
Associations with Apology. H5 predicted that apology would associate negatively with
the four destructive responses to hurtful messages—(a) de-escalation, (b) revenge, (c)
distributive communication, and (d) negative avoidance. When analyzing this hypothesis using
bivariate correlations (see Table 2), both de-escalation and revenge obtained significant negative
associations with apology, while distributive communication and negative avoidance showed
nonsignificant associations with apology. Thus, H5a and H5b were supported, but H5c and H5d
were not. The supplementary regression analysis, however, produced somewhat different
findings, with de-escalation and distributive communication emerging as the only two significant
predictors of apology, F(2,258)= 12.51, p < .001, R
2
= .09. Consistent with H5a, de-escalation
associated negatively with apology, = -.32, t= -5.00, p < .001. Contrary to H5c, distributive
communication associated positively with apology, = .13, t= 1.97, p < .05.
Associations with Forgiveness. H6 predicted that forgiveness would associate negatively
with de-escalation, revenge, distributive communication, and negative avoidance. Support was
garnered for all four parts of this hypothesis when the bivariate correlations were considered (see
Table 2), with the negative association between forgiveness and de-escalation proving to be the
most robust. De-escalation emerged as the only significant predictor of forgiveness in the
regression model.
Forgiveness as a Mediator. The final hypothesis (H7) predicted that forgiveness would
mediate the relationship between apology and destructive communication. As for the other
mediation hypothesis, we first examined the bivariate correlations associated with the tests for


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