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Relations Among Apology, Forgiveness, and Communicative Responses to Hurtful Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  Forgiveness and Communication 20 H5 and H6 to determine which associations were candidates for mediation. These results ruled out the possibility that forgiveness acted as a mediator between apology and the destructive responses of distributive communication and negative avoidance. Thus, H7c and H7d were not supported. However, these results suggested that forgiveness could potentially mediate the associations between apology and the other two destructive responses—de-escalation and revenge. To test for mediation, de-escalation was first regressed on apology alone, F(1,259)= 20.96, p < .001, R 2 = .08. The model improved significantly when forgiveness was added in the second step, F(2,258)= 30.41, p < .001, R 2 = .19, F change (1,258)= 36.96, p < .001. The Beta weight for apology decreased from -.27 (t= -4.58, p < .001) to -.12 (t=- 2.01, p < .05) after forgiveness was added to the model. The Beta weight for forgiveness was -.37 (t= -6.08, p < .001). The decrease in the Beta weight for apology, combined with the relatively large effect for forgiveness, provides clear support for H7a—forgiveness does indeed appear to mediate the association between apology and de-escalation. For revenge, apology emerged as a significant predictor ( = -.14, t= -2.30, p < .05) when entered alone in the first step of the analysis, F(1,260)= 5.29, p < .05, R 2 = .02. When forgiveness was added in the second step, the model improved significantly, F(2,259)= 5.25, p < .01, R 2 = .04, F change (1,259)= 5.31, p < .05, even though apology was no longer significantly predictive of revenge, = .13, t= 1.97, p < .05. As hypothesized, forgiveness was negatively related to revenge, = .-.15, t= -2.31, p < .05. Because apology became nonsignificant after forgiveness was added, this analysis provides good support for H7b; within this data set forgiveness acted as a mediator between apology and vengeful behavior. Models Based on the Relations Among Variables

Authors: Bachman, Guy. and Guerrero, Laura.
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Forgiveness and Communication 20
H5 and H6 to determine which associations were candidates for mediation. These results ruled
out the possibility that forgiveness acted as a mediator between apology and the destructive
responses of distributive communication and negative avoidance. Thus, H7c and H7d were not
supported. However, these results suggested that forgiveness could potentially mediate the
associations between apology and the other two destructive responses—de-escalation and
revenge.
To test for mediation, de-escalation was first regressed on apology alone, F(1,259)=
20.96, p < .001, R
2
= .08. The model improved significantly when forgiveness was added in the
second step, F(2,258)= 30.41, p < .001, R
2
= .19, F change (1,258)= 36.96, p < .001. The Beta
weight for apology decreased from -.27 (t= -4.58, p < .001) to -.12 (t=- 2.01, p < .05) after
forgiveness was added to the model. The Beta weight for forgiveness was -.37 (t= -6.08, p <
.001). The decrease in the Beta weight for apology, combined with the relatively large effect for
forgiveness, provides clear support for H7a—forgiveness does indeed appear to mediate the
association between apology and de-escalation.
For revenge, apology emerged as a significant predictor ( = -.14, t= -2.30, p < .05) when
entered alone in the first step of the analysis, F(1,260)= 5.29, p < .05, R
2
= .02. When forgiveness
was added in the second step, the model improved significantly, F(2,259)= 5.25, p < .01, R
2
=
.04, F change (1,259)= 5.31, p < .05, even though apology was no longer significantly predictive
of revenge, = .13, t= 1.97, p < .05. As hypothesized, forgiveness was negatively related to
revenge, = .-.15, t= -2.31, p < .05. Because apology became nonsignificant after forgiveness
was added, this analysis provides good support for H7b; within this data set forgiveness acted as
a mediator between apology and vengeful behavior.
Models Based on the Relations Among Variables


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