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Relations Among Apology, Forgiveness, and Communicative Responses to Hurtful Messages
Unformatted Document Text:  Forgiveness and Communication 21 In an effort to put the pieces of the data puzzle together, we created three models based on the results from the bivariate correlations and regression models used to test the hypotheses. The first of these models specified direct relationships between apology and three communicative responses—loyalty, distributive communication, and integrative communication. Apology was regressed on these three communicative responses, with the Beta weights displayed in Figure 1. This model accounted for 15% of the variance in apology scores, F(3,257)= 14.32, p < .001. The arrows shown in Figure 1 (as well as Figure 2) are bidirectional since regression analysis cannot specify the causal nature of associations between variables. The second model initially specified direct relationships between forgiveness and four communicative responses—relational repair, loyalty, distributive communication, and negative avoidance. However, in the preliminary analysis regressing forgiveness on these responses, the Beta weights were nonsignificant for loyalty and negative avoidance. Thus, the final trimmed model (see Figure 2) included only relational repair and distributive communication. This model accounted for 16% of the variance in forgiveness scores, F(2,259)= 24.92, p < .001. The final model was based on results showing forgiveness to mediate the relationships between apology and three of the responses—integrative communication, de-escalation, and revenge (see Figure 3). Path analysis was utilized to assess the fit of the data to this model. The proposed model was supported with a nonsignificant chi square value, 2 (5)= 8.91, and a goodness of fit index of .92. Discussion Forgiveness is a key component in determining whether relationships are repaired and maintained following hurtful events. The present study replicates past research showing that: (a) apology associates positively with forgiveness, and (b) forgiveness, or the lack thereof, is

Authors: Bachman, Guy. and Guerrero, Laura.
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Forgiveness and Communication 21
In an effort to put the pieces of the data puzzle together, we created three models based
on the results from the bivariate correlations and regression models used to test the hypotheses.
The first of these models specified direct relationships between apology and three
communicative responses—loyalty, distributive communication, and integrative communication.
Apology was regressed on these three communicative responses, with the Beta weights displayed
in Figure 1. This model accounted for 15% of the variance in apology scores, F(3,257)= 14.32, p
< .001. The arrows shown in Figure 1 (as well as Figure 2) are bidirectional since regression
analysis cannot specify the causal nature of associations between variables.
The second model initially specified direct relationships between forgiveness and four
communicative responses—relational repair, loyalty, distributive communication, and negative
avoidance. However, in the preliminary analysis regressing forgiveness on these responses, the
Beta weights were nonsignificant for loyalty and negative avoidance. Thus, the final trimmed
model (see Figure 2) included only relational repair and distributive communication. This model
accounted for 16% of the variance in forgiveness scores, F(2,259)= 24.92, p < .001.
The final model was based on results showing forgiveness to mediate the relationships
between apology and three of the responses—integrative communication, de-escalation, and
revenge (see Figure 3). Path analysis was utilized to assess the fit of the data to this model. The
proposed model was supported with a nonsignificant chi square value,
2
(5)= 8.91, and a
goodness of fit index of .92.
Discussion
Forgiveness is a key component in determining whether relationships are repaired and
maintained following hurtful events. The present study replicates past research showing that: (a)
apology associates positively with forgiveness, and (b) forgiveness, or the lack thereof, is


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