From the 'Battle of Seattle' to the 'War on Terrorism' in The New York Times
Unformatted Document Text:
From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to the ‘War on Terrorism’ 12
damage at demonstrations, military-like preparations in anticipation of violence by activists, and
so on. Intercoder reliability for this category was 94 percent.
Event valence: Each reference to movement activities was categorized as negative,
neutral, or positive. Deviant, delegitimating or diminishing terms such as chaos, fiasco, riot,
violence were coded as negative. Each reference to a protest, event, demonstration, meeting, or
so on was coded as neutral. Each reference to a peaceful activity such as a rally, teach-in,
pacifism, or vigil was coded as positive. Intercoder reliability for this category was 95 percent.
Analysis: To determine change over time, the three years of coverage were broken down
into periods of approximately four months’ duration (100-135 days) each. Each non-overlapping
time period corresponded to at least one major anti-globalization protest event; the exception was
“Pre-Seattle” (May 1, 1999 to September 30, 1999), which represents the five months prior to
preview coverage of Seattle and provides a baseline for comparison. “Seattle” (October 1, 1999,
to January 31, 2000) includes WTO protests in that city. “Washington, D.C.” (February 1, 2000
to May 31, 2000) includes IMF/World Bank protests in the U.S. capital. “Prague” (June 1, 2000
to September 20, 2000) includes IMF/World Bank protests in the Czech Republic. “Davos”
(October 1, 2000 to January 31, 2001) includes World Economic Forum protests in Switzerland.
“Quebec City” (February 1, 2001 to May 30, 2001) includes Free Trade Area of the Americas
protests in Canada. “Genoa” (June 1, 2001 to September 10, 2001) includes G-8 protests in Italy.
“Doha” (September 11, 2001 to December 31, 2001) includes WTO protests in Qatar and marks
the beginning of coverage after the World Trade Center attacks. “New York” (January 1, 2002 to
April 20, 2002) includes World Economic Forum protests in Manhattan and IMF/World Bank
and anti-war protests in Washington, D.C.