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From the 'Battle of Seattle' to the 'War on Terrorism' in The New York Times
Unformatted Document Text:  From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to the ‘War on Terrorism’ 6 6 have found that journalists support the status quo because of their familiarity with and reliance on official sources—such as police—who tend to oppose social change; this routine has the effect of marginalizing the views of movement participants (Berkowitz & Beach, 1993; McLeod & Hertog, 1992; Sigal, 1973). Yet, changes in sourcing patterns may occur over time as reporters reflect upon their own fairness and balance, respond to criticism from outsiders, or become familiar with new sources in the grassroots rather than officialdom. This study predicts that the New York Times will increasingly represent the views of nonofficial sources—including movement members—over three years, as journalists learn about and develop a rapport with these potential informants (Molotch, 1979). Thus, the next hypothesis is: H2: The proportion of nonofficial sources quoted directly or indirectly in the New York Times’ coverage will increase substantially from 1999 to 2002. Scholars also have noted that press reports tend to portray new social movements negatively—ignoring substantive goals in favor of superficial appearances and emphasizing violence, which heightens drama and communicates the deviance of protesters. For example, anarchist movements are often stereotyped, and widely misperceived, as violent bomb-throwers and threats to the established order (Chan and Lee, 1984; McLeod & Hertog, 1992; Hertog & McLeod, 1995; McLeod & Detenber, 1999). Such tendencies might moderate over the longer period of time as journalists develop “affection for activists through shared contacts and stresses” (Molotch, 1979, 84) and made discoveries about the world that legitimate a movement’s claims, as Gitlin found (1980). This study predicts that: H3: The number of negative terms used to describe anti-globalization movement members’ appearances, behaviors and attitudes in the New York Times’ coverage will decrease substantially from 1999 to 2002. Most news coverage focuses on short-term events rather than longer-term social-change issues and strategies. Shanto Iyengar and Adam Simon (1993) describe such framing as episodic

Authors: Rauch, Jennifer., Chitrapu, Sunitha., Evans, John., Mwesige, Peter., Paine, Christopher. and Eastman, Susan.
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From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to the ‘War on Terrorism’ 6
6
have found that journalists support the status quo because of their familiarity with and reliance
on official sources—such as police—who tend to oppose social change; this routine has the
effect of marginalizing the views of movement participants (Berkowitz & Beach, 1993; McLeod
& Hertog, 1992; Sigal, 1973). Yet, changes in sourcing patterns may occur over time as reporters
reflect upon their own fairness and balance, respond to criticism from outsiders, or become
familiar with new sources in the grassroots rather than officialdom. This study predicts that the
New York Times will increasingly represent the views of nonofficial sources—including
movement members—over three years, as journalists learn about and develop a rapport with
these potential informants (Molotch, 1979). Thus, the next hypothesis is:
H2: The proportion of nonofficial sources quoted directly or indirectly in the New York
Times’ coverage will increase substantially from 1999 to 2002.
Scholars also have noted that press reports tend to portray new social movements
negatively—ignoring substantive goals in favor of superficial appearances and emphasizing
violence, which heightens drama and communicates the deviance of protesters. For example,
anarchist movements are often stereotyped, and widely misperceived, as violent bomb-throwers
and threats to the established order (Chan and Lee, 1984; McLeod & Hertog, 1992; Hertog &
McLeod, 1995; McLeod & Detenber, 1999). Such tendencies might moderate over the longer
period of time as journalists develop “affection for activists through shared contacts and stresses”
(Molotch, 1979, 84) and made discoveries about the world that legitimate a movement’s claims,
as Gitlin found (1980). This study predicts that:
H3: The number of negative terms used to describe anti-globalization movement members’
appearances, behaviors and attitudes in the New York Times’ coverage will decrease
substantially from 1999 to 2002.
Most news coverage focuses on short-term events rather than longer-term social-change
issues and strategies. Shanto Iyengar and Adam Simon (1993) describe such framing as episodic


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