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Four Basic Communication Strategies, Beyond the Borders of Traditional Public Relations Practice
Unformatted Document Text:  12 • explicit and/or implicit definition of the process of communication • metaphors used to typify the process of communication It proved possible to find examples of all six communication models-in-use in the public relations literature. However, a seventh type emerged, for which there was no model to define the type of communication involved. Secondly, the typology of public relations practice had to be fleshed out, in order to reveal an accompanying public relations approach. This is done by examining: • explicit and/or implicit definitions of public relations • theories that are seen as necessary for public relations action • the criteria of success in public relations • requisite hierarchical position in the organization • typical catchwords A survey of Dutch professional literature published between 1950 and 2000 was carried out to obtain an empirical clarification of the public relations approaches constructed here. These sources included the ceremonial speeches of the Dutch Association of Communication, practical and scientific professionally-oriented books published in the Netherlands, the Association’s journal and other professional journals, as well as the journal of the Dutch Association of Public Communication. The method followed was typical case selection, which involved creating a profile of characteristics and then looking for examples in order to clarify the characteristics. This kind of sampling is useful for achieving typicality in a study (Daymond & Holloway, 2002:162). The typology is presented by means of metaphors. The essence of metaphor is experiencing and understanding one thing in terms of another (Heath, 1994; Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2000). A metaphor is an instrument for organizing qualitative social science work and for influencing the interpretations

Authors: Van Ruler, A. A. Betteke.
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12
explicit and/or implicit definition of the process of communication
metaphors used to typify the process of communication
It proved possible to find examples of all six communication models-in-use in the public relations
literature. However, a seventh type emerged, for which there was no model to define the type of
communication involved.
Secondly, the typology of public relations practice had to be fleshed out, in order to reveal an
accompanying public relations approach. This is done by examining:
explicit and/or implicit definitions of public relations
theories that are seen as necessary for public relations action
the criteria of success in public relations
requisite hierarchical position in the organization
typical catchwords
A survey of Dutch professional literature published between 1950 and 2000 was carried out to obtain
an empirical clarification of the public relations approaches constructed here. These sources included
the ceremonial speeches of the Dutch Association of Communication, practical and scientific
professionally-oriented books published in the Netherlands, the Association’s journal and other
professional journals, as well as the journal of the Dutch Association of Public Communication.
The method followed was typical case selection, which involved creating a profile of characteristics
and then looking for examples in order to clarify the characteristics. This kind of sampling is useful for
achieving typicality in a study (Daymond & Holloway, 2002:162).
The typology is presented by means of metaphors. The essence of metaphor is experiencing and
understanding one thing in terms of another (Heath, 1994; Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2000). A metaphor
is an instrument for organizing qualitative social science work and for influencing the interpretations


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