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Balance in Campaign Coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Coverage Balance 26 8 Katheleen Jamieson, Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992); Thomas Patterson, Out of Order (New York: Knopf, 1993). 9 Thomas Patterson and Wolfgang Donsbach, “News Decisions: Journalists as Partisan Actors,” Political Communication 13 (1996): 455-68. 10 Stephen Hess, The Washington Reporters (The Brookings Institution, 1981); Stephen Hess, “All the President’s Reporters: A New Survey of the White House Press Corps,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 22 (1992): 311-21. 11 Elliot D. Cohen and Deni Elliott, Journalism Ethics (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997); Herbert Gans, Deciding what’s news (New York: Vintage Books, 1979); John C. Merrill, Journalism ethics: Philosophical foundations for news media (New York: New York University Press, 1997); Michael Schudson, Discovering the News (New York: Basic Books, 1978); Michael Schudson, The power of news (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996). 12 Gaye Tuchman, “Objectivity as Strategic Ritual,” American Journal of Sociology 77 (Jan., 1972): 660- 79. 13 Martin Bell, “The Truth is Our Currency,” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 3 (Winter 1998): 102-109. 14 James Kuklinski and Lee Sigelman, “When Objectivity is Not Objective,” The Journal of Politics 54 (Aug., 1992), 829. 15 John W. Johnstone, Edward J. Slawski, William W. Bowman, The news people: a sociological portrait of American journalists and their work, (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1976). 16 John Soloski, “Sources and channels of local news,” Journalism Quarterly 66 (1989): 864-70. 17 Kaarle Nordenstreng, “Professional Ethics: Between Fortress Journalism and Cosmopolitan Journalism,” In The Media in Question, ed. Kees Brants, Joke Hermes, and Liesbet van Zoonen (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998), 128. 18 The idea came from the theory of social justice. Morton Deutsch, Distributive Justice (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985); Clara Sabbagh, Yechezkel Dar, and Nura Resh, “The Structure of Social Justice Judgments,” Social Psychology Quarterly 57 (Sep., 1994): 244-61. In an election, the need principle can also be suggested, for it asks for the coverage allocation according to candidates’ primary needs for survival and development, whose fulfillment will make campaigns more competitive and successful. This perspective argues that any candidate, especially in an incipient stage of a campaign, needs a certain amount of coverage to become known. This study, however, did not consider the need principle as a criterion for coverage balance in the 2000 Bush-Gore campaign.

Authors: Son, Young Jun. and Weaver, David.
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Coverage Balance 26
8
Katheleen Jamieson, Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1992); Thomas Patterson, Out of Order (New York: Knopf, 1993).
9
Thomas Patterson and Wolfgang Donsbach, “News Decisions: Journalists as Partisan Actors,”
Political Communication 13 (1996): 455-68.
10
Stephen Hess, The Washington Reporters (The Brookings Institution, 1981); Stephen Hess,
“All the President’s Reporters: A New Survey of the White House Press Corps,” Presidential
Studies Quarterly
22 (1992): 311-21.
11
Elliot D. Cohen and Deni Elliott, Journalism Ethics (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997);
Herbert Gans, Deciding what’s news (New York: Vintage Books, 1979); John C. Merrill,
Journalism ethics: Philosophical foundations for news media (New York: New York University
Press, 1997); Michael Schudson, Discovering the News (New York: Basic Books, 1978);
Michael Schudson, The power of news (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).
12
Gaye Tuchman, “Objectivity as Strategic Ritual,” American Journal of Sociology 77 (Jan.,
1972): 660- 79.
13
Martin Bell, “The Truth is Our Currency,” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 3
(Winter 1998): 102-109.
14
James Kuklinski and Lee Sigelman, “When Objectivity is Not Objective,” The Journal of
Politics 54 (Aug., 1992), 829.
15
John W. Johnstone, Edward J. Slawski, William W. Bowman, The news people: a sociological
portrait of American journalists and their work, (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1976).
16
John Soloski, “Sources and channels of local news,” Journalism Quarterly 66 (1989): 864-70.
17
Kaarle Nordenstreng, “Professional Ethics: Between Fortress Journalism and Cosmopolitan
Journalism,” In The Media in Question, ed. Kees Brants, Joke Hermes, and Liesbet van Zoonen
(Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998), 128.
18
The idea came from the theory of social justice. Morton Deutsch, Distributive Justice (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1985); Clara Sabbagh, Yechezkel Dar, and Nura Resh, “The
Structure of Social Justice Judgments,” Social Psychology Quarterly 57 (Sep., 1994): 244-61. In
an election, the need principle can also be suggested, for it asks for the coverage allocation
according to candidates’ primary needs for survival and development, whose fulfillment will
make campaigns more competitive and successful. This perspective argues that any candidate,
especially in an incipient stage of a campaign, needs a certain amount of coverage to become
known. This study, however, did not consider the need principle as a criterion for coverage
balance in the 2000 Bush-Gore campaign.


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