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Balance in Campaign Coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Coverage Balance 27 19 Sandra Dickson, “Understanding Media Bias,” Journalism Quarterly 71 (1994): 809-19; Keith Kennedy and Chris Simpson, “Was coverage of the 1988 presidential race by Washington’s two major dailies biased?”; Cynthia Roper, “David versus Goliath,” In The Electronic Election, ed. Lynda Lee Kaid and Dianne G. Bystrom (Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum, 1999); James G. Stovall, “The Third-Party Challenge of 1980,” Journalism Quarterly 63 (1985): 266-71. 20 Dave D’Alessio and Mike Allen, “Media Bias in Presidential Elections: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Communication 50 (Autumn 2000): 133 -56. 21 Domke, Fan, Fibison, Shah, Smith, and Watts, “News Media, Candidates and Issues, and Public Opinion in the 1996 Presidential Campaign”; Richard Hofstetter, Bias in the News; Karl E. Rosengren, Studies in Broadcasting (Tokyo: Nippon Hoso Kyokai, 1979). 22 While tangible and substantial, the relating of coverage balance to public opinion polls needs more rigorous theoretical foundations in that public opinion is not a simple summation of individual preferences, and does not always mean what public opinion polls find. 23 They believed media bias occurs when a pattern of constant favoritism toward a candidate is not correlated with her/his poll position over an extended time. Domke, Fan, Fibison, Shah, Smith, and Watts, “News Media, Candidates and Issues, and Public Opinion in the 1996 Presidential Campaign.” 24 Patterson, Out of Order. 25 Doris Graber, Mass Media and American Politics (Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 1997); Doris Graber and David H. Weaver, “Presidential Performance Criteria The Missing Element in Election Coverage,” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 1 (1996): 7-32; Shanto Iyengar and David Kinder, News that matters: Television and American opinion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); Jamieson, Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy ; Patterson, Out of Order; Thomas Patterson, Doing Well and Doing Good, Research paper in the Joan Shorenstein Center Harvard University (Harvard University Press, 2000). 26 Kuklinski and Sigelman, “When Objectivity is Not Objective.” 27 Thomas Patterson, The Mass Media Election (New York: Praeger,1980). Patterson, Out of Order. 28 Graber, Mass Media and American Politics. 29 Richard W. Waterman, Robert Wright, and Gilbert St. Clair, The Image-Is-Everything Presidency (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999). 30 For example, Judith S. Trent, Cady S. Thompson, Paul A. Mongeau, Andrew K. Nusz, and Jimmie D. Trent, “Image, Media bias, and Voter characteristics 1988-2000,” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (Aug., 2001): 2101- 24.

Authors: Son, Young Jun. and Weaver, David.
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Coverage Balance 27
19
Sandra Dickson, “Understanding Media Bias,” Journalism Quarterly 71 (1994): 809-19; Keith
Kennedy and Chris Simpson, “Was coverage of the 1988 presidential race by Washington’s two
major dailies biased?”; Cynthia Roper, “David versus Goliath,” In The Electronic Election, ed.
Lynda Lee Kaid and Dianne G. Bystrom (Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum, 1999); James G. Stovall, “The
Third-Party Challenge of 1980,” Journalism Quarterly 63 (1985): 266-71.
20
Dave D’Alessio and Mike Allen, “Media Bias in Presidential Elections: A Meta-Analysis,”
Journal of Communication 50 (Autumn 2000): 133 -56.
21
Domke, Fan, Fibison, Shah, Smith, and Watts, “News Media, Candidates and Issues, and
Public Opinion in the 1996 Presidential Campaign”; Richard Hofstetter, Bias in the News; Karl
E. Rosengren, Studies in Broadcasting (Tokyo: Nippon Hoso Kyokai, 1979).
22
While tangible and substantial, the relating of coverage balance to public opinion polls needs
more rigorous theoretical foundations in that public opinion is not a simple summation of
individual preferences, and does not always mean what public opinion polls find.
23
They believed media bias occurs when a pattern of constant favoritism toward a candidate is
not correlated with her/his poll position over an extended time. Domke, Fan, Fibison, Shah,
Smith, and Watts, “News Media, Candidates and Issues, and Public Opinion in the 1996
Presidential Campaign.”
24
Patterson, Out of Order.
25
Doris Graber, Mass Media and American Politics (Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 1997); Doris
Graber and David H. Weaver, “Presidential Performance Criteria The Missing Element in
Election Coverage,” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 1 (1996): 7-32; Shanto
Iyengar and David Kinder, News that matters: Television and American opinion (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1987); Jamieson, Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and
Democracy
; Patterson, Out of Order; Thomas Patterson, Doing Well and Doing Good, Research
paper in the Joan Shorenstein Center Harvard University (Harvard University Press, 2000).
26
Kuklinski and Sigelman, “When Objectivity is Not Objective.”
27
Thomas Patterson, The Mass Media Election (New York: Praeger,1980). Patterson, Out of
Order.
28
Graber, Mass Media and American Politics.
29
Richard W. Waterman, Robert Wright, and Gilbert St. Clair, The Image-Is-Everything
Presidency (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999).
30
For example, Judith S. Trent, Cady S. Thompson, Paul A. Mongeau, Andrew K. Nusz, and
Jimmie D. Trent, “Image, Media bias, and Voter characteristics 1988-2000,” American
Behavioral Scientist
44 (Aug., 2001): 2101- 24.


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