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Balance in Campaign Coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Coverage Balance 28 31 Janis L. Edwards, “Running in the shadows in campaign 2000: Candidate metaphors in editorial cartoons,” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (Aug., 2001): 2140-51. 32 E.R.Shipp, “Typecasting Candidates,” The Washington Post, 5 March 2000. 33 It is not easy to write in general terms about the domain of political reporters, either conceptually or operationally. See, David H. Weaver and Cleveland Wilhoit, The American Journalists in the 1990s (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996). 34 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook (New York: Editor & Publisher, 1999). 35 Although it was necessary to know journalists’ addresses to send them questionnaires, all information was confidential. This study asked them not to include their addresses on the stamped return envelopes. Moreover, even though the return mail had a postmark, systematic random sampling did not permit the author to identify participants. No compensation was given to those sampled, and no follow-up mailing was carried out. Telephone calls, however, were made to persuade reporters to take part in the survey. 36 Larry Bartels, “Politicians and the Press: Who leads, Who follows?” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA, 1996; James W. Dearing and Everett M. Rogers, Agenda-Setting (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996); Stephen Reese and Lucig H. Danielian, “Intermedia influence and the drug issue,” In Communication Campaigns about Drugs. ed. Pamela J. Shoemaker (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989): 29-45; Bartholomew Sparrow, Uncertain Guardians (Baltimore, MD: Jones Hopkins University Press, 1999). 37 Considering the fact that peer reporters basically produce the campaign coverage, respondents’ perceptions of both areas (i.e., the general media and peer reporters) should be converging one another to be recognized as reliable. However, the possible differences between the two areas could be explained by the outcome of structural influences of the news organizations. 38 According to social psychology, individuals are likely to perceive that their judgments on their own work are more balanced, objective and accurate than others, although a number of cognitive and motivational biases lie in personal judgment and inference. Such claims are suggested to arise from social desirability and self-enhancement motives. See Scott Plous, The psychology of judgment and decision making (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Emily Pronin, Leah Lin, and Lee Ross, “The bias blind spot: perceptions of bias in self versus others,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (Summer 2002): 368-81; Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, “Judgment under uncertainty,” Science 185 (1974): 1124-1131. 39 Patterson, The Mass Media Election. 40 A male reporter was used as a dummy variable. The education level was measured on a five- point scale where 1 was high school graduation, 2 was 1-3 years of college experience, 3 was college graduation, 4 was some graduate work while no degree, and 5 was graduate-level

Authors: Son, Young Jun. and Weaver, David.
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Coverage Balance 28
31
Janis L. Edwards, “Running in the shadows in campaign 2000: Candidate metaphors in
editorial cartoons,” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (Aug., 2001): 2140-51.
32
E.R.Shipp, “Typecasting Candidates,” The Washington Post, 5 March 2000.
33
It is not easy to write in general terms about the domain of political reporters, either
conceptually or operationally. See, David H. Weaver and Cleveland Wilhoit, The American
Journalists in the 1990s
(Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996).
34
Editor & Publisher International Yearbook (New York: Editor & Publisher, 1999).
35
Although it was necessary to know journalists’ addresses to send them questionnaires, all
information was confidential. This study asked them not to include their addresses on the
stamped return envelopes. Moreover, even though the return mail had a postmark, systematic
random sampling did not permit the author to identify participants. No compensation was given
to those sampled, and no follow-up mailing was carried out. Telephone calls, however, were
made to persuade reporters to take part in the survey.
36
Larry Bartels, “Politicians and the Press: Who leads, Who follows?” (paper presented at the
annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA, 1996; James
W. Dearing and Everett M. Rogers, Agenda-Setting (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996); Stephen
Reese and Lucig H. Danielian, “Intermedia influence and the drug issue,” In Communication
Campaigns about Drugs
. ed. Pamela J. Shoemaker (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989): 29-45;
Bartholomew Sparrow, Uncertain Guardians (Baltimore, MD: Jones Hopkins University Press,
1999).
37
Considering the fact that peer reporters basically produce the campaign coverage, respondents’
perceptions of both areas (i.e., the general media and peer reporters) should be converging one
another to be recognized as reliable. However, the possible differences between the two areas
could be explained by the outcome of structural influences of the news organizations.
38
According to social psychology, individuals are likely to perceive that their judgments on their
own work are more balanced, objective and accurate than others, although a number of cognitive
and motivational biases lie in personal judgment and inference. Such claims are suggested to
arise from social desirability and self-enhancement motives. See Scott Plous, The psychology of
judgment and decision making
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Emily Pronin,
Leah Lin, and Lee Ross, “The bias blind spot: perceptions of bias in self versus others,”
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (Summer 2002): 368-81; Amos Tversky and
Daniel Kahneman, “Judgment under uncertainty,” Science 185 (1974): 1124-1131.
39
Patterson, The Mass Media Election.
40
A male reporter was used as a dummy variable. The education level was measured on a five-
point scale where 1 was high school graduation, 2 was 1-3 years of college experience, 3 was
college graduation, 4 was some graduate work while no degree, and 5 was graduate-level


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