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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 10 In contrast, Lim (1990) points out the limitations of Brown and Levinson’s (1978) model because: 1) it allows only one type of threat at one time, 2) politeness theory should include the absence of behavior and those utterances that have no instrumental aspect at all, and 3) it ignores the inverted meanings of utterances that are created in particular contexts (pp. 77-78). Providing these critiques, Lim develops her own model of positive and negative politeness strategies which is basically a refined version of Brown and Levinson’s (1978). Baxter (1984) also questions the concept of hierarchy and suggests functional overlaps of strategies. Her argument is fundamentally about what strategy one chooses in a case when he or she seeks compliance from the other, and she adds "pre-giving" (p. 440) to Brown and Levinson’s tactics (1978). Her naturalistic approach, which examines situational factors and includes gender difference in the selection of strategies, provides new insights to the study of face. Tracy’s (1994) model facework is directed toward the micro level of interaction and urges a drastic revision to Brown and Levinson’s (1978) strategies by stressing the necessities for taking into account situational factors. Tracy points out the inapplicability of face-concerns (positive and negative face) to some contexts. For example, individuals may abandon faces in order to achieve their goals. At the same time, according to Tracy, Brown and Levinson’s definition of positive face is too general and it does not identify what face-concern is most central to an interactant (p. 292). While many of the studies on facework largely depend on request or compliance seeking behavior in daily, "normal" human interaction, Rogan and Hammer (1994) take a different approach. They specifically focus on dimensions rather than a hierarchy and argue it in relation to crisis negotiations. Crisis events are extremely volatile situations

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 10
In contrast, Lim (1990) points out the limitations of Brown and Levinson’s (1978)
model because: 1) it allows only one type of threat at one time, 2) politeness theory
should include the absence of behavior and those utterances that have no instrumental
aspect at all, and 3) it ignores the inverted meanings of utterances that are created in
particular contexts (pp. 77-78). Providing these critiques, Lim develops her own model
of positive and negative politeness strategies which is basically a refined version of
Brown and Levinson’s (1978). Baxter (1984) also questions the concept of hierarchy and
suggests functional overlaps of strategies. Her argument is fundamentally about what
strategy one chooses in a case when he or she seeks compliance from the other, and she
adds "pre-giving" (p. 440) to Brown and Levinson’s tactics (1978). Her naturalistic
approach, which examines situational factors and includes gender difference in the
selection of strategies, provides new insights to the study of face.
Tracy’s (1994) model facework is directed toward the micro level of interaction
and urges a drastic revision to Brown and Levinson’s (1978) strategies by stressing the
necessities for taking into account situational factors. Tracy points out the inapplicability
of face-concerns (positive and negative face) to some contexts. For example, individuals
may abandon faces in order to achieve their goals. At the same time, according to Tracy,
Brown and Levinson’s definition of positive face is too general and it does not identify
what face-concern is most central to an interactant (p. 292).
While many of the studies on facework largely depend on request or compliance
seeking behavior in daily, "normal" human interaction, Rogan and Hammer (1994) take a
different approach. They specifically focus on dimensions rather than a hierarchy and
argue it in relation to crisis negotiations. Crisis events are extremely volatile situations


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