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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 11 and negotiations usually continue over time. When facework is practiced in order to stabilize a perpetrator’s emotional condition so that they would not harm hostages (or the perpetrators themselves in suicidal cases), the hierarchy of politeness may not be of significant interest. Rather than the level of politeness, the nature of the messages exchanged through negotiations would become a central concern. Based on the peculiar nature of hostage negotiation, Rogan and Hammer present three dimensions of facework: locus of concern, face valence, and temporality (p. 218). Locus of concern refers to the side on which a potential impact of facework would be inflicted, that is, either self or the other. Face valence includes threat, honor, and neutrality. Face-threat involves verbal offense of identities such as "intimidation, insults, humiliation, derogation, criticism, or reprimands" (p. 218) Neutral facework potentially poses neutral impact on the speaker’s or listener’s face. Face-honoring may include "hedges, qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval, optimism, liking, retractions, clarifications, and retroactive disclaimers" (p. 218). The third dimension, temporality, follows face-honoring. Temporality, or timing, sees if the facework can function as defense against future possible threats or restoration of the lost face. Face-defense is operationalized as "anticipatory and preventive" and face-restoration as "reparative of damage already done" to one’s identity (Brown, 1977, p. 277). Based on the three- dimensional model, Rogan and Hammer introduce seven types of facework; one may 1) defend self’s face, 2) attack self’s face, 3) restore self’s face, 4) present a neutral face, 5) defend other’s face, 6) attack other’s face, and 7) restore other’s face (p. 218). In addition to these seven faceworks, two types of backchannels, positive and negative, were analyzed in their study. Backchannels such as "Yah" and "Nah" (Rogan and Hammer,

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 11
and negotiations usually continue over time. When facework is practiced in order to
stabilize a perpetrator’s emotional condition so that they would not harm hostages (or the
perpetrators themselves in suicidal cases), the hierarchy of politeness may not be of
significant interest. Rather than the level of politeness, the nature of the messages
exchanged through negotiations would become a central concern.
Based on the peculiar nature of hostage negotiation, Rogan and Hammer present
three dimensions of facework: locus of concern, face valence, and temporality (p. 218).
Locus of concern refers to the side on which a potential impact of facework would be
inflicted, that is, either self or the other. Face valence includes threat, honor, and
neutrality. Face-threat involves verbal offense of identities such as "intimidation, insults,
humiliation, derogation, criticism, or reprimands" (p. 218) Neutral facework potentially
poses neutral impact on the speaker’s or listener’s face. Face-honoring may include
"hedges, qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval, optimism, liking, retractions,
clarifications, and retroactive disclaimers" (p. 218). The third dimension, temporality,
follows face-honoring. Temporality, or timing, sees if the facework can function as
defense against future possible threats or restoration of the lost face. Face-defense is
operationalized as "anticipatory and preventive" and face-restoration as "reparative of
damage already done" to one’s identity (Brown, 1977, p. 277). Based on the three-
dimensional model, Rogan and Hammer introduce seven types of facework; one may
1) defend self’s face, 2) attack self’s face, 3) restore self’s face, 4) present a neutral face,
5) defend other’s face, 6) attack other’s face, and 7) restore other’s face (p. 218). In
addition to these seven faceworks, two types of backchannels, positive and negative, were
analyzed in their study. Backchannels such as "Yah" and "Nah" (Rogan and Hammer,


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