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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 13 Following Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) findings, the following hypotheses are established. H2: Negotiators attempt to restore other’s face more than restore self’s face. H3: Perpetrators attempt to restore self’s face more than restore other’s face. In addition to the bias in selection of facework behaviors, it is important to consider temporal aspects of negotiation. There will be many independent variables that may influence participants’ attitudes. For instance, relational development may occur over time. It is necessary to consider that participants may implement different facework behaviors according to perceived relational development. The level of trust or closeness may change in the process of negotiation and facework may accordingly change. Various external influences in negotiation processes will also affect participants’ behavior. Due to the intensity of the situation, participants in hostage-taking incidents will become fatigued over time. The ongoing negotiations themselves may also change emotional excitation level. Taking into consideration that a variety of components change throughout the negotiation process, the following hypothesis is developed. H4: Facework behaviors change in selection and frequency as negotiations proceed. Method The transcripts analyzed in this study were available through previous research by Holmes. The three cases are authentic hostage-taking events. They include two barricading cases in cities and an airplane highjacking. The situations of these cases are as follows:

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 13
Following Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) findings, the following hypotheses are
established.
H2: Negotiators attempt to restore other’s face more than restore self’s face.
H3: Perpetrators attempt to restore self’s face more than restore other’s face.
In addition to the bias in selection of facework behaviors, it is important to
consider temporal aspects of negotiation. There will be many independent variables that
may influence participants’ attitudes. For instance, relational development may occur
over time. It is necessary to consider that participants may implement different facework
behaviors according to perceived relational development. The level of trust or closeness
may change in the process of negotiation and facework may accordingly change. Various
external influences in negotiation processes will also affect participants’ behavior. Due to
the intensity of the situation, participants in hostage-taking incidents will become
fatigued over time. The ongoing negotiations themselves may also change emotional
excitation level. Taking into consideration that a variety of components change
throughout the negotiation process, the following hypothesis is developed.
H4:
Facework behaviors change in selection and frequency as negotiations
proceed.
Method
The transcripts analyzed in this study were available through previous research by
Holmes. The three cases are authentic hostage-taking events. They include two
barricading cases in cities and an airplane highjacking. The situations of these cases are
as follows:


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