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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 14 Case 1. A suspect who robbed a jewelry store has fled to a residential area and holds an elderly couple as hostages in order to escape police arrest. Case 2. A bank robbery suspect holds a woman in the bank and requests an automobile to escape the scene. Case 3. A suspect hijacks an airplane and takes two crew members hostage. He demands to see his girlfriend and to return to the drug rehabilitation program from which he has recently released. (Holmes & Sykes, 1993, p. 43). Each transcript was coded by two coders, both of them were Ph.D students in communication. The coders were instructed to code according to Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) three-dimensional model of facework plus two types of backchannels, positive and negative. The coding system consists of nine categories: 1) Attack Others Face, 2) Attack Self’s Face, 3) Defend Other’s Face, 4) Defend Self’s Face, 5) Restore Other’s Face, 6) Restore Self’s Face, 7) Positive Backchannels, 8) Negative Backchannels, and 9) Neutral Face. Each coder was provided with a coding scheme book that displayed the description and sample discourses of the nine facework behaviors (see Appendix A). The unit of analysis is one discourse turn. The number of units are 252, 651, and 380 for Cases 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The total of 1283 discourse units were coded and analyzed. In a case when one speaking turn involved more than one facework behavior, the coders chose the most emphasized facework behavior. If the coders considered that the emphasis was too subtle, they selected the one they felt preceded the other facework behavior(s). In order to estimate reliability of coding, the coders first coded a transcript from a case not used in this study that consisted of 111 discourse units. The coders were in

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 14
Case 1.
A suspect who robbed a jewelry store has fled to a residential area and holds
an elderly couple as hostages in order to escape police arrest.
Case 2.
A bank robbery suspect holds a woman in the bank and requests an
automobile to escape the scene.
Case 3.
A suspect hijacks an airplane and takes two crew members hostage. He
demands to see his girlfriend and to return to the drug rehabilitation program
from which he has recently released. (Holmes & Sykes, 1993, p. 43).
Each transcript was coded by two coders, both of them were Ph.D students in
communication. The coders were instructed to code according to Rogan and Hammer’s
(1994) three-dimensional model of facework plus two types of backchannels, positive and
negative. The coding system consists of nine categories: 1) Attack Others Face, 2) Attack
Self’s Face, 3) Defend Other’s Face, 4) Defend Self’s Face, 5) Restore Other’s Face,
6) Restore Self’s Face, 7) Positive Backchannels, 8) Negative Backchannels, and
9) Neutral Face. Each coder was provided with a coding scheme book that displayed the
description and sample discourses of the nine facework behaviors (see Appendix A).
The unit of analysis is one discourse turn. The number of units are 252, 651, and
380 for Cases 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The total of 1283 discourse units were coded and
analyzed. In a case when one speaking turn involved more than one facework behavior,
the coders chose the most emphasized facework behavior. If the coders considered that
the emphasis was too subtle, they selected the one they felt preceded the other facework
behavior(s).
In order to estimate reliability of coding, the coders first coded a transcript from a
case not used in this study that consisted of 111 discourse units. The coders were in


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