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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 19 fourth segment, face attacking by the perpetrator increases to nine times, while the negotiator’s face-defense is three. The last segment consists mostly of a conversation between the perpetrator and his mother, which is excluded from the analysis. The perpetrator attacks the negotiator’s face twice at the end. In Case 2, the perpetrator attacks the negotiator’s face eleven times in the first segment (each segment is approximately 140 units including both negotiator and perpetrator’s speech units) of the negotiation. Attack Other’s Face by the perpetrator increases to 21 times in the second segment, returns to ten times in the third, and increases to 18 times in the fourth, and it to 34 times in the final segment. He uses Restore Self’s Face eight times in the fourth segment. The negotiators constantly employ Defend Self's Face throughout, especially, as they attempt to defend their face 17 times in the final segment. Case 3 (n=107 per segment, including both negotiator and perpetrator’s speech) demonstrates a similar pattern to Case 2 in terms of the employment of Attack Other’s Face by the perpetrator. The perpetrator constantly uses Attack Other’s Face, and it culminates in 25 times in the last segment the negotiation. The negotiators also employ Defend Self’s Face with significant frequency, as well as attempt to Restore Other’s Face. All three cases demonstrate that perpetrators employ Attack Other’s Face more in the later part of negotiations. Therefore, Hypothesis 4 states that facework behaviors change in selection and fequency as negotiations proceed is supported.

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 19
fourth segment, face attacking by the perpetrator increases to nine times, while the
negotiator’s face-defense is three. The last segment consists mostly of a conversation
between the perpetrator and his mother, which is excluded from the analysis. The
perpetrator attacks the negotiator’s face twice at the end.
In Case 2, the perpetrator attacks the negotiator’s face eleven times in the first
segment (each segment is approximately 140 units including both negotiator and
perpetrator’s speech units) of the negotiation. Attack Other’s Face by the perpetrator
increases to 21 times in the second segment, returns to ten times in the third, and
increases to 18 times in the fourth, and it to 34 times in the final segment. He uses
Restore Self’s Face eight times in the fourth segment. The negotiators constantly employ
Defend Self's Face throughout, especially, as they attempt to defend their face 17 times in
the final segment.
Case 3 (n=107 per segment, including both negotiator and perpetrator’s speech)
demonstrates a similar pattern to Case 2 in terms of the employment of Attack Other’s
Face by the perpetrator. The perpetrator constantly uses Attack Other’s Face, and it
culminates in 25 times in the last segment the negotiation. The negotiators also employ
Defend Self’s Face with significant frequency, as well as attempt to Restore Other’s Face.
All three cases demonstrate that perpetrators employ Attack Other’s Face more in the
later part of negotiations. Therefore, Hypothesis 4 states that facework behaviors change
in selection and fequency as negotiations proceed is supported.


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