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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 2 Abstract This study investigates hostage-taking incidents with regard to identity concerns based on Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) three dimensional model of facework. Rogan and Hammer examined the discourses in crisis negotiations, including two non-hostage and one hostage-taking incidents, by coding them into their facework categories. This study tests the applicability of their findings to typical hostage-taking events. Results are largelt inconsistent with Rogan and Hammer’s. This study discovered that participants typically engaged in Neutral Face and Positive Backchannels, while the dominant behaviors in Rogan and Hammer’s study were Face-restoration. Attack Other’s Face, which Rogan and Hammer did not find, was employed by the participants with significant frequency. Face-defense behaviors were conducted rather than Face- restoration. Investigation of a selection of facework behaviors over time revealed that Attack Other’s Face occurred more frequently toward the end of the incidents. Frequencies of facework behaviors are summarized in tables, and the selection bias is visually displayed.

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 2
Abstract
This study investigates hostage-taking incidents with regard to identity concerns
based on Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) three dimensional model of facework. Rogan and
Hammer examined the discourses in crisis negotiations, including two non-hostage and
one hostage-taking incidents, by coding them into their facework categories. This study
tests the applicability of their findings to typical hostage-taking events. Results are
largelt inconsistent with Rogan and Hammer’s. This study discovered that participants
typically engaged in Neutral Face and Positive Backchannels, while the dominant
behaviors in Rogan and Hammer’s study were Face-restoration. Attack Other’s Face,
which Rogan and Hammer did not find, was employed by the participants with
significant frequency. Face-defense behaviors were conducted rather than Face-
restoration. Investigation of a selection of facework behaviors over time revealed that
Attack Other’s Face occurred more frequently toward the end of the incidents.
Frequencies of facework behaviors are summarized in tables, and the selection bias is
visually displayed.


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