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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 21 Interestingly, law enforcement negotiators also engage in Attack Other’s Face. In order to attain superiority in negotiations, law enforcement may sometimes have to take a resolute attitude toward the perpetrators, which may contain some level of identity rejection. However, the frequency in employing Attack Other's Face is much lower than that of perpetrators, perhaps because negotiators do not want to intensely threaten the perpetrators' face enough to stimulate them into devastating behaviors. The finding that negotiators employ Restore Other's Face more than Restore Self's Face and that perpetrators engage in Restore Self's Face more than Restore Other's Face are consistent with Rogan and Hammer's (1994) research results. This may suggest that in order to calm down emotions heightened as a result of an identity crisis, negotiators may intentionally, and perpetrators may naturally, attempt to restore the threatened face of the perpetrators. This may also accounts for the results obtained by both Rogan and Hammer and myself that perpetrators attempt to Defend Self's Face more than Defend Others Face. However, Defend Self's Face is found in negotiators' discourses with remarkable frequency, which is inconsistent with Rogan and Hammer's (1994) discoveries. It is necessary to discuss the functions of Defend Self's Face by negotiators. It is not realistic to consider that the negotiators are always attempting to defend their personal identities, because they negotiate to achieve ultimate goals such as leading the perpetrator to releasing hostages and to surrender. These goals would take precedence over their personal identities presented in the given situations. Usually, more than one demand is presented in the course of negotiation in hostage-taking situations. Considering the possibility that failure in negotiating a small demand may negatively influence the next,

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 21
Interestingly, law enforcement negotiators also engage in Attack Other’s Face. In
order to attain superiority in negotiations, law enforcement may sometimes have to take a
resolute attitude toward the perpetrators, which may contain some level of identity
rejection. However, the frequency in employing Attack Other's Face is much lower than
that of perpetrators, perhaps because negotiators do not want to intensely threaten the
perpetrators' face enough to stimulate them into devastating behaviors.
The finding that negotiators employ Restore Other's Face more than Restore Self's
Face and that perpetrators engage in Restore Self's Face more than Restore Other's Face
are consistent with Rogan and Hammer's (1994) research results. This may suggest that
in order to calm down emotions heightened as a result of an identity crisis, negotiators
may intentionally, and perpetrators may naturally, attempt to restore the threatened face
of the perpetrators. This may also accounts for the results obtained by both Rogan and
Hammer and myself that perpetrators attempt to Defend Self's Face more than Defend
Others Face.
However, Defend Self's Face is found in negotiators' discourses with remarkable
frequency, which is inconsistent with Rogan and Hammer's (1994) discoveries. It is
necessary to discuss the functions of Defend Self's Face by negotiators. It is not realistic
to consider that the negotiators are always attempting to defend their personal identities,
because they negotiate to achieve ultimate goals such as leading the perpetrator to
releasing hostages and to surrender. These goals would take precedence over their
personal identities presented in the given situations. Usually, more than one demand is
presented in the course of negotiation in hostage-taking situations. Considering the
possibility that failure in negotiating a small demand may negatively influence the next,


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