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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 22 negotiators may have to be highly prudent in conversations, especially when they make a concession to the perpetrator. If they accept the perpetrator’s request and fail to honor their words, it may create distrust between the participants. Delaying tactics may also account for their use of Defend Self’s Face. Avoiding making concrete statements may serve to increase negotiating so that law enforcement can take necessary actions for the given situation. These assumptions may also be applied to the results from temporal analysis of facework behaviors. The study shows that Defend Self’s Face by negotiators generally increases when Attack Other’s Face by perpetrators increases. When a perpetrator attempts to exert power over law enforcement by threatening face, negotiators respond by giving a statement that carefully deters future trouble rather than trying to restore his or her personal identity. Lastly, in all the three cases analyzed in this study, perpetrators employ Attack Other’s Face more near the end of the incident. Moreover, negotiator’s Attack Other’s Face increases slightly near the end. Fatigue could be one reason for becoming aggressive. Also, as negotiations come to the climax the participants may pursue their interests more intensly. Also, near the end of the incident it becomes crucial to decide whether tactical intervention should be implemented. These results are consistent with Gulliver’s phase model of negotiations (Holmes & Sykes, 1993). Conclusion This research has attempted to test Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) three dimensional model of facework behaviors on hostage-taking incidents. It further sought to understand

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 22
negotiators may have to be highly prudent in conversations, especially when they make a
concession to the perpetrator. If they accept the perpetrator’s request and fail to honor
their words, it may create distrust between the participants. Delaying tactics may also
account for their use of Defend Self’s Face. Avoiding making concrete statements may
serve to increase negotiating so that law enforcement can take necessary actions for the
given situation.
These assumptions may also be applied to the results from temporal analysis of
facework behaviors. The study shows that Defend Self’s Face by negotiators generally
increases when Attack Other’s Face by perpetrators increases. When a perpetrator
attempts to exert power over law enforcement by threatening face, negotiators respond by
giving a statement that carefully deters future trouble rather than trying to restore his or
her personal identity.
Lastly, in all the three cases analyzed in this study, perpetrators employ Attack
Other’s Face more near the end of the incident. Moreover, negotiator’s Attack Other’s
Face increases slightly near the end. Fatigue could be one reason for becoming
aggressive. Also, as negotiations come to the climax the participants may pursue their
interests more intensly. Also, near the end of the incident it becomes crucial to decide
whether tactical intervention should be implemented. These results are consistent with
Gulliver’s phase model of negotiations (Holmes & Sykes, 1993).
Conclusion
This research has attempted to test Rogan and Hammer’s (1994) three dimensional
model of facework behaviors on hostage-taking incidents. It further sought to understand


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