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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 27 Appendix A Coding Book Thank you very much for participating in the study. You are kindly requested to code the transcripts. The coding procedure is described as follows. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to investigate how participants of crisis negotiations employ messages that contain certain types of facework. Face and Facework Face is a social image of self which is projected and attributed in the course of social interaction. Facework is the positive and negative reinforcement of the face which is generally practiced through language. When an individual receives negative reinforcement such as "threats, intimidation, insults, humiliation, derogation, or criticism," (Rogan and Hammer, 1994, p. 218), social identity of the person is threatened, and the individual may feel his or her face is attacked or lost. In contrast, if your face is positively reinforced, or honored, you will feel that your face is saved or restored. Such face-honoring acts may include "hedges, qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval, optimism, liking, retractions, clarifications, and retroactive disclaimers" (p. 218). Each facework, attacking or honoring, has its object person to be attacked, that is, either self or other. In this study, coding will be practiced according to nine categories of facework behaviors.

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 27
Appendix A
Coding Book
Thank you very much for participating in the study. You are kindly requested to
code the transcripts. The coding procedure is described as follows.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate how participants of crisis negotiations
employ messages that contain certain types of facework.
Face and Facework
Face is a social image of self which is projected and attributed in the course of
social interaction. Facework is the positive and negative reinforcement of the face which
is generally practiced through language. When an individual receives negative
reinforcement such as "threats, intimidation, insults, humiliation, derogation, or
criticism," (Rogan and Hammer, 1994, p. 218), social identity of the person is threatened,
and the individual may feel his or her face is attacked or lost. In contrast, if your face is
positively reinforced, or honored, you will feel that your face is saved or restored. Such
face-honoring acts may include "hedges, qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval,
optimism, liking, retractions, clarifications, and retroactive disclaimers" (p. 218). Each
facework, attacking or honoring, has its object person to be attacked, that is, either self or
other. In this study, coding will be practiced according to nine categories of facework
behaviors.


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