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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 28 Facework Categories The following is the nine categories of facework. There are two targets to whom facework is directed, other or self. In the categories, "other" indicates the other side of the negotiating parties; for a perpetrator, the other is law enforcement personnel(s) and for law enforcement, it is the perpetrator. Face attacking includes threats, intimidation, insults, humiliation, derogation, criticism, and reprimands (Rogan & Hammer, 1994, p. 218). (1) Attack Other’s Face Participants may attack other’s face (e.g., "You’re pissin’ me off now," "You all never cooperate with nobody," or "Do it now, you fool.") (2) Attack Self’s Face Participants may attack self’s face (e.g., "Oh, god, I’ve shot that guy," "Nobody cares me," or "I have no hope"). There are four categories of face-honoring acts. Face-honoring such as hedges, qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval, optimism, liking, retractions, clarifications, and retroactive disclaimers are also directed to either other or self. At the same time, there are two temporal dimensions in face-honoring behaviors: defense and restoration. Face- defense occurs as proactive prevention of future possible face-threats. On the other hand, face-restoration attempts to restore already threatened face. (3) Defend Other’s Face Participants may protect other’s face from future loss (e.g., "I know you’re very intelligent," "You’re doing alright?" "Thank you for listening," or "Yes, it’s very true" following other's self-honoring).

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 28
Facework Categories
The following is the nine categories of facework. There are two targets to whom
facework is directed, other or self. In the categories, "other" indicates the other side of
the negotiating parties; for a perpetrator, the other is law enforcement personnel(s) and
for law enforcement, it is the perpetrator.
Face attacking includes threats, intimidation, insults, humiliation, derogation,
criticism, and reprimands (Rogan & Hammer, 1994, p. 218).
(1)
Attack Other’s Face
Participants may attack other’s face (e.g., "You’re pissin’ me off now," "You all never
cooperate with nobody," or "Do it now, you fool.")
(2)
Attack Self’s Face
Participants may attack self’s face (e.g., "Oh, god, I’ve shot that guy," "Nobody cares me,"
or "I have no hope").
There are four categories of face-honoring acts. Face-honoring such as hedges,
qualifiers, humor, disclosures, approval, optimism, liking, retractions, clarifications, and
retroactive disclaimers are also directed to either other or self. At the same time, there are
two temporal dimensions in face-honoring behaviors: defense and restoration. Face-
defense occurs as proactive prevention of future possible face-threats. On the other hand,
face-restoration attempts to restore already threatened face.
(3)
Defend Other’s Face
Participants may protect other’s face from future loss (e.g., "I know you’re very
intelligent," "You’re doing alright?" "Thank you for listening," or "Yes, it’s very true"
following other's self-honoring).


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